Some remarks on expressing the agent in long passive constructions in Slovenian with a perspective from French and Russian
Keywords:passive voice, agent, adjunct, long passive, comparison
The paper discusses the means of expression of the passive voice and, primarily, of the agent in long passive constructions (i.e. in the role of an adjunct) in Slovenian. The analysis is further developed by perspectives from French and Russian on the same question (regarding the standard varieties of the three languages). First, the paper presents a summary of contemporary approaches to the passive voice (voice as a form of diathesis), followed by a description, structured according to the language, of the types, formation, and general characteristics of these constructions. In general, the passive formed with a participle and the one constructed by means of pronominal verb forms are distinguished and considered for each language (in addition to their impersonal counterparts). Particular attention is paid to the means of expressing the agent, especially to the prepositions used (in Slovenian and French; it is used without a preposition in the Russian language). Special focus is given to the prepositional phrase s strani in Slovenian. In written language, the passive voice is most widely used in the expert literature; the expression of the agent is quite rare in all three languages (least often used in the passive constructions with pronominal verb forms) and has been often criticized in (prescriptivist) grammars. As it pertains to the Slovenian language, the topic is under-researched.
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