Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application


  • Saeed FIROUZI Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran



rice, oryza, nitrogen fertilizers, rhizobacteria, azotobacter, Azospirillum, plant growth stimulants, growth, crop yield


To evaluate the effects of nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application on grain, milling, and head rice yields, a field experiment was conducted at Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran, in 2013. The experimental design was a factorial treatment arrangement in a randomized complete block with three replicates. Factors were three N rates (0, 75, and 150 kg ha-1) and two bio-fertilizer applications (inoculation and uninoculation with Nitroxin, a liquid bio-fertilizer containing Azospirillum spp. and Azotobacter spp. bacteria). Analysis of variance showed that rice grain yield, panicle number per m2, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, grains N concentration and uptake, grain protein concentration, and head rice yield were significantly affected by N rate, while bio-fertilizer application had significant effect on rice grain yield, grain number per panicle, flag leaves area, biological yield, harvest index, grains N concentration and uptake, and grain protein concentration. Results showed that regardless of bio-fertilizer application, rice grain and biological yields were significantly increased as N application rate increased from 0 to 75 kg ha-1, but did not significantly increase at the higher N rate (150 kg ha-1). Grain yield was significantly increased following bio-fertilizer application when averaged across N rates. Grains N concentration and uptake were significantly increased as N rate increased up to 75 kg ha-1, but further increases in N rate had no significant effect on these traits. Bio-fertilizer application increased significantly grains N concentration and uptake, when averaged across N rates. Regardless of bio-fertilizer application, head rice yield was significantly increased from 56 % to 60 % when N rate increased from 0 to 150 kg ha-1. Therefore, this experiment illustrated that rice grain and head yields increased with increasing N rate, while bio-fertilizer application increased only rice grain yield.


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How to Cite

FIROUZI, S. (2015). Grain, milling, and head rice yields as affected by nitrogen rate and bio-fertilizer application. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 105(2), 241–248.



Agronomy section