Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study


  • Móslem SAMI Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
  • Mohammad Javad SHIEKHDAVOODI Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran
  • Morteza ALMASSI Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran



wheat, triticum, zea mays, maize, energy balance, pollutants, greenhouse effect, energy consumption, efficiency, environmental impact assessment, evaluation


In this study, the net balance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy of wheat and maize production systems in two farms in Khuzestan province of Iran was assessed. The results showed that totally wheat farming is more efficient than maize farming in terms of energy and CO2-eq indexes. The total energy requirement for maize and wheat farming was 92560.24 MJ ha-1 and 39624.15 MJ ha-1, which caused the emission of 20191.47 and 7541.04 kg CO2-equivalent per hectare in maize and wheat farms respectively. Electricity, fertilizers and fuel were the most important pollutants of environment in terms of energy and gas emission in both farms. Theses inputs consumed 55.52, 22.62 and 6.44 % of total energy of maize and 47.32, 21.19 and 9.01 % of total energy of wheat farm and were responsible for the 88.60, 8.79 and 2.03 % of CO2-equivalent in maize and 86.54, 9.54 and 3.24 % of CO2-equivalent in wheat farms respectively. The results of this study also showed that the enhancement of 60.74 and 27.02 % in energy ratio and 46.06 and 27.87 % in CO2-eq index in maize and wheat farming can be expected using simple improving scenarios.


Abdi R., Hematian A., Zarei Shahamat E., Bakhtiari A.A. 2012a. Optimization of Energy Consumption Pattern in the Maize Production System in Kermanshah Province of Iran. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 4, 15: 2548-2554

Abdi R., Taki M., Akbarpour M. 2012b. An Analysis of Energy input-output and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Agricultural Productions. International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences, 6, 3: 73-79

Asakereh A., Safaienejad M., Sami M. 2011. Energy and economic analysis of dry farming chickpea in Iran a case study: Lorestan province. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 7, 3: 547-555

Attar S. 2011. The evaluation the input energy of wheat watered in the east of Khuzestan province. The first national conference in strategies for achieving sustainable agriculture. Ahvaz Iran. 1-7 (in Persian)

Audsley E., Stacey K., Parsons D.J., Williams A.G. 2009. Estimation of the greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural pesticide manufacture and use, 20 pp. Cranfield Univers ity, Cranfield, UK

Barber E.M., Classen H.L., Thacker P.A. 1989. Energy use in the production and housing of poltry and swine – an overview. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 69: 7-21. DOI: 10.4141/cjas89-002

Beheshtitabar I., Keihani A. 2007. Energy input, output analysis of a wheat watered farm in the Khatam county of Yazd. Third Student Conference of Agricultural Machinery Engineering Shiraz Iran, 120-128 (in Persian)

Bellarby J., Foereid B., Hastings A., Smith P. 2008. Cool Farming: climate impacts of agriculture and mitigation potential. Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Biswas W.K., Barton L. Carter D. 2008. Global warming potential of wheat production in Western Australia: a life cycle assessment. Water and Environment Journal, 22: 206–216. DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-6593.2008.00127.x

Carreres R., Sendra J., Balle steros R., Valiente E.F., Quesada A., Carrasco D,. Legane ́s F., Cuadra J.G. 2003. Assessment of Slow Release Fertilisers and Nitrification Inhibitors in Flooded Rice. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 39:80-87. DOI: 10.1007/s00374-003-0684-4

Chamsing A., Salokhe V., Singh G. 2006. Energy Consumption Analysis for Selected Crops in Different Regions of Thailand. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Manuscript EE 06 013. Vol. VIII. November

Coxworth E., Entz M.H., Henry S., Bramford K.C., Schoofs A., Ominski P.D., Leduc P., Burton P. 1995. Study of the effects of cropping and tillage systems on carbon dioxide released by manufactured inputs to western Canadian agriculture: Identification of methods to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Final report for Agriculture and Agri-food Canada

Demircan V., Ekinci K., Keener H.M., Akbolat D., Ekinci C. 2006. Energy an d economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: a case study from Isparta province. Energy Conversation Management, 47, 13–14:1761–1769

Enquete Commission, 1995. Protecting Our Green Earth. How to manage global warming through environmentally sound farming and preservation of the world’s forests. 683 pp. Bonn, Germany, Economia Verlag

Entz M.H., Henry S., Bramford K.C., Schoofs A., Ominski P.D. 1995. Carbon released by manufactured inputs in pr airie agriculture: Impact of forage crops and tillage systems. Dept. of Plant Science, University of Winnipeg, Manitoba

Eshun J.F., Apori S.O., Wereko E. 2013. Greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice production systems in Ghana. African Crop Science Journal, 21, 2: 119 – 125

Flynn H.C., Smith P. 2010. Greenhouse gas budgets of crop production – current and likely future trends. First edition, International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris, France

FAO. 2012. Food Outlook, Global Market Analysis.

Havlikova M., Kroeze C. 2007. Evaluation of methods for quantifying agricultural emissions of air, water and soil pollutants. Science of the Total Environment, 372: 133–147. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.09.020

Houshyar E., SheikhDavoodi M.J., Nassiri S.M. 2010. Energy efficiency for wheat production using data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 6, 4: 663-672

IPCC. 2006. 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Programme, H.S. Eggleston, L. Buendia, K. Miwa, T. Ngara and Tanabe, K. (Eds). Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Tokyo, Japan

Keshavarz A., Heidari N. 2004. An overview on the waste of national waters recourses in the process of production and consumption of agricultural products. 1st Symposium of National Resources Loss Prevention, Tehran Iran. 39-52 (in Persian)

Khan S., Khan M.A., Latif N. 2010. Energy Requirements and Economic Analysis of Wheat, Rice and Barley Production in Australia. Soil and Environment, 29, 1: 61 – 68

Kitani O. 1998. Energy and environment in agricultural engineering research. International Engineering Conference, Bangkok, Thailand

Kizilaslan H. 2009. Input–output energy analysis of cherries production in Tokat Province of Turkey. Applied Energy, 86: 1354–1358. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.07.009

Kochaki A., Nasiri Mahalati M., Mansouri H., Moradi R. 2012. Evaluation of nitrogen cycle and its efficiency in the produ ction cycle of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) in Iran. Journal of Agroecology 4, 3: 192-200 (in Persian)

Kok R., Benders R.M.J., Moll H.C. 2006. Measuring the environmental load of household consumption using some methods based on input–output energy analysis: a comparison of methods and a discussion of results. Energy Policy, 34, 17: 2744–2761. DOI: 10.1016/j.enpol.2005.04.006

Lal R. 2004. Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International, 30: 981– 990. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2004.03.005

Loghmanpour R., Yaghoubi H., Akram A. 2013. Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran. African Crop Science Journal, 21, 1: 61 – 65

Lorenz D., Morris D. 1995, How Much Energy Does It Take to Make a Gallon of Ethanol? Institute of Local Self-Reliance, Minneapolis, MN, Aug

Lorzadeh S.H., Mahdavidamghani A., Enayatgholizadeh M.R., Yousefi M. 2011. Agrochemical Input Application and Energy Use Efficiency of Maize Production Systems in Dezful, Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 9, 2: 153-156

Lorzadeh S.h., Mahdavidamghani A., Enayatgholizadeh M.R., Yousefi M. 2012. Reasearch of Energy use efficiency for maize produ ction systems in Izeh, Iran. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 99, 2:137 – 142. DOI: 10.2478/v10014-012-0013-4

Macedo I.C., Joaquim Seabra J.E.A., Silva J.E.A.R. 2008. Greenhouse gases emissions in the production and use of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil: The 2005/2006 averages and a prediction for 2020. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32: 582 – 595. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.12.006

Míguez J.L., López-González L.M., Sala J.M., Porteiro J., Granada E., Morán J.C., Juárez M.C. 2006. Review of compliance w ith EU-2010 targets on renewable energy in Galicia (Spain). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 10, 3:225–247. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2004.09.009

Naghibzadeh S.S,, Arzhang J., Chenari M. 2011. Investigation and analysis of energy consumption in the rearing of broilers. The first national congress of new topics in agriculture. Saveh, Iran 1-8 (in Persian)

Nahatkar S.B,. Sharma H. 2006. Energy Use Pattern for Production of Rainfed Wheat. Agricultural Science Digest, 26, 1: 27- 30

Nassiri S.M., Singh S. 2008. Non-Parametric Energy Use Efficiency, Energy Ratio and Specific Energy for Irrigated Wheat Crop Production. Iran Agricultural Research, 27, 1-2 and 28, 1: 27-38

Pimentel D. 1980. Handbook of Energy Utilization in Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL

Pimentel D., Pimentel M. 1979. Energy use in fruit, vegetable, and forage production. In: Pimentel, D., Pimentel, M. (Eds.), Food, Energy, and Society. University Press of Colorado, Niwot, CO, pp. 131– 147

Pimentel D., Patzek T.W. 2005. Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower. Natural Resources Research, 14: 65-76. DOI: 10.1007/s11053-005-4679-8

Power and Energy Planning Department (PEPD). 2010. Energy balance sheet of Iran. Iranian military of energy. Tehran Iran (In Persian)

Sami M., Shiekhdavoodi M.J., Asakereh A. 2011. Energy use in apple production in the Esfahan province of Iran. African Crop Science Journal, 19: 125-130

Sedaghathoseini S.M., Moghaddasi R. 2010. Studying the Relationship Between Farm Size and Selected Energy Indices in Wheat Pr oduction (Case: City of Miandoab). National Conference of Water, Soil, Plant Science & Agricultural Machinery in IAU Dezful Branch, March 2010

Shahin S., Jafari A., Mobli H., Rafiee S., Karimi M. 2008. Effect of Farm Si ze on Energy Ratio for Wheat Production: A Case Study from Ardabil Province of Iran. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environment Science, 3, 4: 604- 608

Shapouri H., Duffield J.A., Graboski M.S. 1995. Estimating the Net Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol, United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Economic Report Number 721, July 1995

Shapouri H., Duffield J.A., Wang M. 2002., The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Office of the Chief Economist, Agricultural Economic Report No. 814, Washington, D.C., July 2002.

Singh J.M. 2002. On farm energy use pattern in different cropping systems in Haryana, India. MA. Thesis, International Institute of Management, University of Flensburg, Germany

Smith P., Martino D., Cai Z., Gwary D., Janzen H.H., Kumar P., McCarl B., Ogle S., O’Mara F., Rice C., Scholes R.J., Sirotenko O., Howden M., McAllister T., Pan G., Romanenkov V., Rose S., Schneider U., Towprayoon S. 2007. Agriculture. Chapter 8 of Climate change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave and L.A. Meyer (Eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

Stout B.A. 1990. Handbook of Energy for World Agriculture. New York: Elsevier; 504 pp. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-009-0745-4

Taki M., Ghasemi Mobtaker H., Monjezi N. 2012. Energy input–output modeling and economical analyze for corn grain production in Iran. Elixir Agriculture, 52: 11500-11505

West T.O., Marland G. 20 02. A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions and net carbon flux in agriculture: Comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 91: 217-232. DOI: 10.1016/S0167- 8809(01)00233-X

Zooleh M., Behrozilar M., Khodarahmpour Z. 2011. The appointing energy ratio in watered wheat in Savejbolagh. The first national conference in strategies for achieving sustainable agriculture. Ahvaz, Iran 134-137 (in Persian)



4. 12. 2015



Agronomy section

How to Cite

SAMI, M., SHIEKHDAVOODI, M. J., & ALMASSI, M. (2015). Analysis of energy and greenhouse gas balance as indexes for environmental assessment of wheat and maize farming: a case study. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 103(2), 191–201.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 864

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.