Changes in seed vigor of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars during maturity in response to water limitation


  • Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI University of Tabriz, Iran
  • Morad MOHAMMADI University of Tabriz, Iran
  • Saeid ZEHTAB-SALMASI University of Tabriz, Iran



Safflower, seedling and seed mass, seed vigor, water supply


Seed development and vigor may be influenced by environmental stresses such as water deficit. Thus, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of different irrigation treatments and harvest times on seed vigor of four spring safflower cultivars. Treatments were irrigations (irrigations after 70, 100, 130 and 160 mm evaporation, respectively) in main plots and safflower cultivars (Faraman, Goldasht, Sina and Soffeh) in sub-plots. Seeds were harvested in 5 days intervals at 7 stages during development and maturity. The highest and the lowest seed and seedling masss at all harvests and irrigation treatments were recorded for Faraman and Sina cultivars, respectively. Seed vigor of safflower cultivars as measured by electrical conductivity of seed leachates and seedling dry mass decreased with decreasing water availability. Maximum seed mass and seedling dry mass and minimum electrical conductivity were obtained at 40-45 days after flowering, depending on irrigation interval and cultivar. Seed moisture content at these stages was 15-20 %, which is suitable for direct and mechanical harvesting and threshing.


Abud H.F., Reis R.G.E., Innecco R., Bezerra A.M.E. 2010. Emergence and development of seedling of safflower depending on seed size. Revista Ciencia Agronomica, 41, 95-99.

Demir I., Ashirov A.M., Mavi K. 2008. Effect of seed production environment and time of harvest on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) seedling growth. Research Journal of Seed Science, 1, 1-10.

Desclaux D., Roumet P. 1996. Impact of drought stress on the phenology of two soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) cultivars. Field Crops Research, 46, 61-70. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(95)00086-0

Ellis R. H., Roberts E.H. 1980. Towards a rational basis for testing seed quality, pp. 605- 635. In: Hebblethwaite, P. D. (Eds.). Seed production. Butterworths, London.

Ellis R.H., Pieta Filho C. 1992. Seed development and cereal seed longevity. Seed Science Research, 2, 9-15.

Erskine W., Ashkar F.E. 1993. Rainfall and temperature effects on lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) seed yield in Mediterranean environments. Journal of Agriculture Science, 121, 347-354. DOI: 10.1017/S0021859600085543

Ghassemi–Golezani K. 1992. Effects of seed quality on cereal yields. PhD Thesis, University of Reading, UK. pp. 205-222.

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Akbari H., Bandeh-Hagh A. 2012a. Effects of plant density and pod position on seed vigour of pinto bean cultivars. Research on Crops, 13, 529-533.

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Chadordooz-Jeddi A., Zehtab-Salmasi S. 2014. Effects of seed size and aging on field performance of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) under different irrigation treatments. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 103, 158 – 166. DOI: 10.14720/aas.2014.103.2.1

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Heydari Sh., Hassannejad S. 2015. Seed vigor of maize (Zea mays) cultivars affected by position on ear and water stress. Azarian Journal of Agriculture, 2, 40-45.

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Hossinzadeh-Mahootchy A. 2009. Changes in seed vigor of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) cultivars during development and maturity. Seed Science and Technology, 37, 713-720. DOI: 10.15258/sst.2009.37.3.18

Ghassemi-Golezani,K., Lotfi, R., Norouzi M. 2012b. Seed quality of soybean cultivars affected by pod position and water stress at reproductive stages. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 3, 119-125.

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Mazloomi-Oskooyi R. 2008. Effect of water supply on seed quality development in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). International Journal of Plant Production, 2, 117-124.

Ghassemi-Golezani K, Sheikhzadeh Mosaddegh P, Shakiba MR, Mohamadi A, Nasrollahzadeh S. 2011a. Development of seed physiological quality in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj. 39: 208-212.

Ghassemi-Golezani K, Tajbakhsh Z, Raey Y. 2011b. Seed development and quality in maize cultivars. Not Bot Hort Agrobot Cluj. 39, 178-182.

Ghassemi-Golezani K., Zafarani-Moattar P., Raey Y., Mohammadi A. 2010. Response of pinto bean cultivars to water deficit at reproductive stages. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 8, 801-804.

Hampton J.G., Johnstone K.A., Eua-Umpon V. 1992. Bulk conductivity test variables for mungbean, soybean and French bean seed lots. Seed Science and Technology, 20, 677-686.

Harington I.F. 1972. Seed storage and longevity. In: T.T. Kozlowski (ed.). Seed Biology Volume 111. New York Academic Press, pages 145-245. DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-395605-7.50009-0

Li A.G., Hou V.S., Wall G.W., Trent A., Kimball B.A., Printer P.J. 2000. Free-air CO2 enrichment and drought stress effect on grain filling rate and duration in spring wheat. Crop Science, 40, 1263-1270. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2000.4051263x

Monotti M. 2003. Growing non-food sunflower in dryland conditions. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 8, 3-8.

Ne Smith D.S., Ritchie J.T. 1992. Maize (Zea mays L.) response to a sever soil water deficit during grain filling. Field Crops Research, 29, 23-35. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(92)90073-I

Perry D.A. 1977. A vigor test for seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgar) based on measurement of plumule growth. Seed Science and Technology, 5, 709-719.

Perry D.A. 1980. Deterioration of barley seed and its effects on field performance, p. 321-337. In: Hebblethwaite PD (Ed.). Seed Production. Butterworths.

Powell A.A., Matthews S., Oliveira A. 1984. Seed quality in grain legumes. Annals of Applied Biology, 10, 217-285.

Samarah N.H. 2005. Effects of drought stress on growth and yield of barley. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 25, 145-149. DOI: 10.1051/agro:2004064

Silim S.N., Saxena M.C. 1993. Adaptation of spring - sown chickpea to the Mediterranean basin. II. Factors influencing yield under drought. Field Crops Research, 34, 137-146. DOI: 10.1016/0378-4290(93)90002-5

Sun Q., Wang J.H., Sun B.Q. 2007. Advances in seed vigor physiological and genetic mechanisms. Agricultural Sciences in China, 6, 1060-1066. DOI: 10.1016/S1671-2927(07)60147-3

Tekrony D.M., Egli D.B. 1991. Relationship of seed vigor to crop yield: A Review. Crop Science, 31, 816- 822. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci1991.0011183X003100030054x

Tekrony D.M., Egli D.B. 1997. Accumulation of seed vigor during development and maturation. In Basic and applied aspects of seed biology, (eds. R.H. Ellis, M. Black, A.J. Murdoch and T.D. Hong), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 369-384. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-011-5716-2_41

Vieira R.D., Tekrony D.M., Egli D.B. 1992. Effect of drought and defoliation stress in the field on soybean seed germination and vigor. Crop Science, 32, 471-475. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci1992.0011183X003200020037x



6. 04. 2016



Agronomy section

How to Cite

GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI, K., MOHAMMADI, M., & ZEHTAB-SALMASI, S. (2016). Changes in seed vigor of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) cultivars during maturity in response to water limitation. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 107(1), 15–23.

Similar Articles

11-20 of 431

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.