Volatile phenols in wine: Control measures of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts

Authors

  • Sanja Šućur "13. jul Plantaže" - Winery, Montenegro
  • Neža ČADEŽ University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • Tatjana KOŠMERL University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2016.107.2.17

Keywords:

wine, volatile phenols, Brettanomyces, growth, factors, prevention

Abstract

This review focuses on the considerable amount of research regarding volatile phenols production by Brettanomyces and on microbiological and technological parameters that influence development of these compounds during all stages of grape processing and winemaking. Also, volatile phenols impact on wine aroma and quality and prevention methods were discussed. The yeast genus Brettanomyces is the major microorganism that has the ability to convert hydroxycinnamic acids into significant concentration of phenolic compounds, especially of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, in red wine. When volatile phenols reach concentrations above the sensory threshold in wine, it is then characterized as wine with fault. In order to control the growth of Brettanomyces and preclude volatile phenols production, it is helpful to keep good quality of grape, winery sanitation, control of oxygen and sulphite level, as well as orderly check physiochemical composition of wine.

Author Biography

  • Sanja Šućur, "13. jul Plantaže" - Winery, Montenegro

    Sector for development, 

    Project manager for chemical analysis

References

Agnolucci M., Rea F., Sbrana C., Cristani C., Fracassetti D., Tirelli A., Nuti M. 2010. Sulphurdioxide affects culturability and volatile phenol production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 143(1-2): 76–80. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.07.022

Aguilar Uscanga M. G., Delia M. L., Strehaiano P. 2003. Brettanomyces bruxellensis: effect of oxygen on growth and acetic acid production. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology, 61(2): 157–162. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-002-1197-z

Alguilar Uscanga M. G. A., Delia M. L., Stehaiano P. 2000. Nutritional requirements of Brettanomyces bruxellensis: growth and physiology in batch and chemostat cultures. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 46(11): 1046–1050. DOI: 10.1139/w00-089

Bakker J., Timberlake C. F. 1997. Isolation, identification and characterization of new color-stable anthocyanins occurring in some red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(1) 35–43. DOI: 10.1021/jf960252c

Baumes R., Cordonnier R., Nitz S., Drawert F. 1986. Identification and determination of volatile constituents in wines from different cultivars. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 37(9): 927–943. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740370915

Barata A., Caldeira J., Botelheiro R., Pagliara D., Malfeito-Ferreira M., Loureiro V. 2008. Survival patterns of Dekkera bruxellensis in wines and inhibitory effect of sulphur dioxide. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 121(2): 201–207. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.11.020

Benito S., Palomero F., Morata A., Calderón F., Suárez-Lepe J. A. 2009. Factors affecting the hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase/vinylphenol reductase activity of Dekkera/Brettanomyces: application for Dekkera/Brettanomyces control in red wine making. Journal of Food Science, 74(1): M15–M22. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00977.x

Boulton R. B., Singleton, V. L. Bisson L. F., Kunkee R. E. 1996. Principles and Practices of Winemaking. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall

Buron N., Coton M., Legendre P., Ledauphin J., Kientz-Bouchart V., Guichard H., Barillier D., Coton E. 2012. Implications of Lactobacillus collinoides and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomala in phenolic off-flavour defects of ciders. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 153(1-2): 159–165. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.11.002

Calderón F., Morata A., Uthurry C., Suárez J. A. 2004. Aplicaciones de la ultrafiltración en la industria enológica. Últimos avances tecnológicos. Tecnología del vino, 16, 49–54.

Cabrita M.J., Palma V., Patao R., Freitas M.C. 2012. Conversion of hydroxycinnamic acids into volatile phenols in a synthetic medium and in red wine by Dekkera bruxellensis. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 32(1), 106–111 DOI: 10.1590/s0101-20612012005000024

Carrillo J. D., Tena M. T. 2007. Determination of ethylphenols in wine by in situ derivatisation and headspace solid-phase microextraction – gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Annals of Bioanalytical Chemistry, 387(7): 2547–2558. DOI: 10.1007/s00216-006-1086-x

Chatonnet P., Boidro J. N. (1988). Dosages de phénols volatils dans les vins par chromatographie en phase gazeuse. Sciences des Aliments, 8: 479-488.

Chatonnet P., Boidron J. N., Pons M. 1990. Maturation of red wines in oak barrels evolution of some volatile compounds and their aromatic impact. Sciences des Aliments, 10: 565–587.

Chatonnet P., Dubourdieu D., Boidron J. N., Pons M. 1992. The origin of ethylphenols in wines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 60(2): 165–178. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740600205

Chatonnet P., Dubourdieu D., Boidron J. N., Lavigne V. 1993. Synthesis of volatile phenols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in wines. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62(2): 191–202. DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.2740620213

Chatonnet P., Dubourdieu D., Boidron J. 1995. The influence of Dekkera/Brettanomyces sp. yeast and lactic acid bacteria on the ethylphenol content of red wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 46: 463–468.

Chatonnet P., Viala C., Dubourdieu D. 1997. Influence of polyphenol components of red wines on the microbial synthesis of volatile phenols. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 48: 463–468.

Chatonnet P., Masneuf I., Gubbiotti M.-C., Dubourdieu D. 1999. Prévention et détection des contaminants par Brettanomyces au coursde la vinification et de l’elevage des vis. Revue Française d’Oenologie, 179: 20–24

Ciani M., Ferraro L. 1997. Role of oxygen on acetic acid production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera in winemaking. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 75(4): 489–495. DOI: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0010(199712)75:4<489::aid-jsfa902>3.3.co;2-0

Ciani M., Maccarelli F., Fatichenti F. 2003. Growth and fermentation behavior of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts under different conditions of aerobiosis. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 19(4): 419–422. DOI: 10.1023/a:1023950803858

Cocolin L., Rantsiou K., Iacumin L., Zironi R., Comi G. 2004. Molecular detection and identification of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Brettanomyces/Dekkera anomalus in spoiled wines. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 70(3): 1347–1355. DOI: 10.1128/aem.70.3.1347-1355.2004

Conterno L., Joseph C. M. L., Arvik T. J., Henick-Kling T., Bisson L. 2006. Genetic and physiological characterization of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from wine. . American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 57: 139–157.

Coulon J., Perello M. C., Lonvaud-Funel A., De Revel G., Renouf V. 2009. Brettanomyces bruxellensis evolution and volatile phenols production in red wines during storage in bottles. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(4):1450–1458. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04561.x

Coulter A., Robinson E., Cowey G., Francis I. L., Lattey K., Capone D., Gishen M., Godden P. W. 2004. Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeast – an overview of recent AWRI investigations and some recommendations for its control. In: Bell S., de Garis K., Dundon C., Hamilton R., Partridge S., Wall G. (eds). ASVO Proc. Grapegrowing at the Edge, Managing the Wine Business, Impacts on Wine Flavour, Barossa, Australia: The Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology, 51–55

Couto J. A., Barbosa A., Hogg T. 2005. A simple cultural method for the presumptive detection of the yeasts Brettanomyces ⁄ Dekkera in wines. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 41(6): 505–510. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765x.2005.01782.x

Curtin C. D., Bellon J.R., Henschke P.A., Godden P.W., de Barros Lopes M.A. 2007. Genetic diversity of Dekkera bruxellensis yeasts isolated from Australian wineries. FEMS Yeast Res. 7(3): DOI: 471–481. 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2006.00183.x

Deak T., Beuchat L. R. 1996. Handbook of Food Spoilage Yeasts. CRC Press, Inc., Baton, FL. 210 pp.

Degrassi G., Polverino de Laureto P., Bruschi, C.V. 1995. Purification and characterization of ferulate and p-coumarate decarboxylase from Bacillus pumilus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 61: 326–332

Delfini C., Gaia P., Schellino R., Strano M., Pagliara A., Ambro S. 2002. Fermentability of grape must after inhibition with dimethyl dicarbonate (DMDC). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(20): 5605–5611, DOI: 10.1021/jf0256337

Dias L., Dias S., Sancho T., Stender H., Querol A., Malfeito-Ferreira M., Loureiro V., 2003. Identification of yeasts isolated from wine related environments and capable of producing 4-ethylphenol. Food Microbiol. 20(5): 567–574, DOI: 10.1016/s0740-0020(02)00152-1

Dubois P. 1983. Volatile phenols in wines. In: Pigott J. R. (Ed.), Flavour of distilled beverages: origin and development. Chichester: Ellis Horwood: 110–119

Du Toit W. J., Pretorius I. S., Lonvaud-Funel A. 2005. The effect of sulphur dioxide and oxygen on the viability and culturability of a strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus and a strain of Brettanomyces bruxellensis isolated from wine. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98(4): 862–871, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02549.x

Edlin D. A. N., Narbad A., Dickinson J. R., Lloyd D. 1995. The biotransformation of simple phenolic compounds by Brettanomyces anomalus, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 125: 311–316, DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1995.tb07374.x

Edlin D. A. N., Narbad A., Gasson M. J., Dickinson J. R., Lloyd D. 1998. Purification and characterization of hydroxycinnamate decarboxylase from Brettanomyces anomalus. Enzyme Microbial Technology, 22(4): 232–239, DOI: 10.1016/s0141-0229(97)00169-5

Freer S. N. 2002. Acetic acid production by Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18: 271–275

Freer S. N. 1991. Fermentation and aerobic metabolism of cellodextrins by yeasts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 57: 655–659

Fugelsang K. C., Edwards G.E. 2007. Wine Microbiology: Practical Applications and Procedures. Second edition. Springer, Berlin.

Fulcrand H., Cameira-dos-Santos P. J., Sarni-Manchado P., Cheynier V., Favre-Bonvin J. 1996. Structure of new anthocyanin derived wine pigments. Journal of the Chemical Society-Perkin Transactions, 1: 735–739. DOI: 10.1039/p19960000735

Ganga M.A., Salinas F., Ravanal C., Garcia V., Carrasco C., Martinez C., Saavedra J. 2011. Cinnamic acid, ethanol and temperatura interaction on coumarate decarboxylase activity and the relative expression of the putative CD gene in D. bruxellensis, Electron. J. Biotechnol., 14(15): 3458–3458. DOI: 10.2225/vol14-issue5-fulltext-2

Garde-Cerdán T., Rodriguez Mozaz S., Ancın Azpilicueta C. 2002. Volatile composition of aged wine in used barrels of French oak and of American oak. Food Research International, 35(7): 603–610, DOI: 10.1016/s0963-9969(01)00151-x

Garde-Cerdán T., Lorenzo C., Carot J. M., Esteve M. D., Climent M. D., Salinas M.R. 2010. Effects of composition, storage time, geographic origin and oak type on the accumulation of some volatile oak compounds and ethylphenols in wines. Food Chemistry, 122(4): 1076–1082, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.077

Gawel R. 2004. Brettanomyces Character in Wine, Australian Society of Wine Education National Convention Hunter Valley, Australia

Gerbeaux V., Jeudy S., Monamy C. 2000. Study of phenol volatiles in Pinot noir wines in Burgundy. Bulletin de l’OIV, 73: 581– 599

Gerós H., Cássio F., Leão C. 2000. Utilization and transport of acetic acid in Dekkera anomala and their implications on the survival of the yeast in acidic environments. J Food Prot.,63: 96–101

Gilliland R. B. 1961. Brettanomyces. I. Occurrence, Characteristics, And Effects On Beer Flavour. Jnl Institute Brewing, 67: 257–261. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1961.tb01791.x

Godoy L., Martínez C., Carrasco N., Ganga M. A. 2008. Purification and characterization of a p-coumarate decarboxylase and a vinylphenol reductase from Brettanomyces bruxellensis. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 127 (1-2): 6–11, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2008.05.011

Goldberg D. M., Tsang E., Karumanchiri A. 1998. Quercetin and p-coumaric acid concentrations in commercial wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 49: 142–151

Gómez-Rivas L., Escudero-Abarca B. I., Aguilar-Uscanga M. G., Hayward-Jones P. M., Mendoza P., Ramírez M. 2004. Selective antimicrobial action of chitosan against spoilage yeasts in mixed culture fermentations. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31: 16–22

Goody A. R., Tube R. S. 1982. Genetic and biochemical analysis of the ability of S. cerevisiae to decarboxylate cinnamic acids. Gen. Microbiol., 128(11): 2615–2620, DOI: 10.1099/00221287-128-11-2615

Guilloux-Benatier M., Chassagne D., Alexandre H., Charpentier C., Feuillat M. 2001. Influence of yeast autolysis after alcoholic fermentation on the development of Brettanomyces/Dekkera in wine. J. Int. Sci. Vigne Vin, 35: 157–164

Harris V., Ford C. M., Jiranek V., Grbin P. R. 2008. Dekkera and Brettanomyces growth and utilisation of hydroxycinnamic acids in synthetic media. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 78(6):997–1006, DOI: 10.1007/s00253-007-1328-7

Harris V., Ford C. M., Jiranek V., Grbin P. R. 2009. Survey of enzyme activity responsible for phenolic off-flavour production by Dekkera and Brettanomyces yeast. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 81(6): 1117–1127, DOI: 10.1007/s00253-008-1708-7

Henick-Kling T., Egli C., Licker J., Mitrakul C., Acree T. E. 2000. In Proceedings of the 5th international symposium on cool climate viticulture and oenology, Melbourne, Australia, 16–20 January.

Heresztyn T. 1986. Formation of substituted tetrahydropyridines by species of Brettanomyces and Lactobacillus isolated from mousy wines. Am. J. Enol. Vitic., 80: 171–176

Hesford F., Schneider K., Porret N. A., Gafner J. 2004. Identification and analysis of 4-ethyl catechol in wine tainted by Brettanomyces off-flavor. Abstract. Am. J. Enol. Vitic.,55: 304A

Joseph C. M. L., Bisson L. 2004. Physiological diversity of Brettanomyces/Dekkera isolated from wine. In Technical Abstracts, 55th Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA: p. 28

Kheir J., Salameh D., Strehaiano P., Brandam C., Lteif R. 2013. Impact of volatile phenols and their precursors on wine quality and control measures of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts. European Food Research and Technology, 237(5): 655–671, DOI: 10.1007/s00217-013-2036-4

Kiskó G., Sharp R., Roller S. 2005. Chitosan inactivates spoilage yeasts but enhances survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 98(4): 872–880, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02527.x

Kosel J., Čadež N., Raspor P. 2014. Factors affecting volatile phenol production during fermentations with pure and mixed cultures of Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Technol. Biotechnol., 52: 35–45

Laforgue R., Lonvaud-Funel A. 2012. Hydroxycinnamic acid decarboxylase activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis involved in volatile phenol production: relationship with cell viability. Food Microbiol., 32(2): 230–234, DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2012.06.004

Larue F., Rozes N., Froudiere I., Couty C., Pereira G. P. 1991. Incidence du développement de Dekkera/Brettanomyces dans les mouts et les vins. J. Int. Sci. Vigne Vin, 25: 149–165

Lentz M., Harris C. 2015. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast. Foods, 4(4): 581–593, DOI: 10.3390/foods4040581

Licker J. L., Acree T. E., Henick-Kling T. 1999. What is 'Brett' (Brettanomyces) flavour? A preliminary investigation. Am. Chem. Soc. Symp., Ser. 714: 96–115

Lonvaud-Funel A., Renauf V. 2005. Incidence microbiologique de l’usage de barriques neuves et/ou de barriques usagées. Revue Française d’Oenologie, 211: 10–14

Loureiro V., alfeito-Ferreira M. 2006. Dekkera/Brettanomyces spp. Chapter 13. In: Blackburn C. de W. (ed). Food spoilage microorganisms. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, Abington, Cambridge, UK: 353–398

Mateus N., Silva A. M. S., Vercauteren J., Freitas V. 2001. Occurrence of anthocyanin-derived pigments in red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49: 4836–4840, DOI: 10.1021/jf001505b

Morata A., Gómez-Cordovés M. C., Colomo,B., Suárez J. A. 2003. Pyruvic acid and acetaldehyde production by different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Relationship with vitisin A and B formation in red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51: 7402–7409, DOI: 10.1021/jf0304167

Morata A., Gómez-Cordovés M. C., Colomo B., Suárez J. A. 2005. Cell wall anthocyanin adsorption by different Saccharomyces strains during the fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv Graciano grapes. European Food Research and Technology, 220: 341–346, DOI: 10.1007/s00217-004-1053-8

Morata, A. Gómez-Cordovés M. C., Suberviola J., Bartolomé B., Colomo B., Suárez J. A. 2003. Adsorption of anthocyanins by yeast cell walls during the fermentation of red wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(14): 4084–4088. DOI:10.1021/jf021134u

Morel-Salmi C., Souquet J.-M., Bes M., Cheynier V. 2006. Effect of Flash Release Treatment on Phenolic Extraction and Wine Composition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(12): 4270–4276. DOI: 10.1021/jf053153k

Murat M.-L., Dumeau F. 2003. Impact of fining on populations levels of certain spoilage micro-organisms in red wine. Revue des Oenologues, 107: 16–18

Nisiotou A. A., Gibson G. R. 2005. Isolation of Culturable Yeasts from Market Wines and Evaluation of the 5.8S-ITS rDNA Sequence Analysis for Identification Purposes. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 41(6): 454–463. DOI: 10.1111/j.1472-765x.2005.01795.x

Oelofse A., Pretorius I. S., du Toit M. 2008. Significance of Brettanomyces and Dekkera during winemaking: a synoptic review. S. Afr. J. Enol. Vitic., 29: 128–144.

Oelofse A., Lonvaud-Funel A., du Toit M. 2009. Molecular identification of Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains isolated from red wines and volatile phenol production. Food Microbiology, 26(4): 377–385, DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2008.10.011

Park S. W., Kim S. W., Hong S. I., Hong Y. K. 1999. Development of strain fermenting the glucose/cellobiose mixed sugar for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulosic materials. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 27: 145–152

Park S. W., Kim S. W. 2000. Ethanol production by an immobilized thermotolerant mutant of Brettanomyces custersii H1-39 from wood hydrolyzate media. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 28: 172–179

Phister T.G., Mills D.A. 2004. Novel methods to detect Brettanomyces (Dekkera) in wine. In Technical Abstracts, 55th Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, American Society for Enology and Viticulture, Davis, CA: p. 30

Pollnitz A. P., Pardon K. H., Sefton M. A. 2000. Quantitative analysis of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine. J. Chromatogr. A, 874: 101–109, DOI: 10.1016/s0021-9673(00)00086-8

Puig A., Vilavella M., Daoudi L., Guamis B., Minguez S. 2003. Microbiological and biochemical stabilization of wines by application of high pressure processing. Bulletin de l’OIV, 76: 596–617

Rayne S., Sheppard S., Di Bello T., Eggers N. J. 2008. Chromatic characteristics and optically derived compositional descriptors of micro-oxygenated wines from Vitis vinifera cv. Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Food and Bioprocess Technology. DOI: 10.1007/s11947-008-0152-0

Renouf V., Claisse O., Lonvaud-Funel A. 2007 Inventory and monitoring of wine microbial consortia. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 75: 149–164, DOI: 10.1007/s00253-006-0798-3

Rentzsch M., Schwarz M., Winterhalter P., Hermosín-Gutiérrez I. 2007. Formation of hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins in Grenache wines: Precursor levels and evolution during aging. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55: 4883–4888, DOI: 10.1021/jf0702491

Rodrigues N., Gonçalves G., Pereira-da-Silva S., Malfeito-Ferreira M., Loureiro V. 2001. Development and use of a new medium to detect yeast of the genera Dekkera/Brettanomyces. J. Appl. Microbiol., 90: 588–599, DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2001.01275.x

Romano A., Perello M. C., de Revel G., Lonvaud-Funel A. 2008. Growth and volatile compound production by Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine. J. Appl. Microbiol., 104: 1577–1585, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03693.x

Ribéreau-Gayon P. Glories Y., Maujean A., Dubourdieu D. 2000. Handbook of Enology: The Chemistry of Wine Stabilization and Treatments, Vol. 2, 1st ed., Wiley, West Sussex, p. 219.

Ruiz-Hernández M. 2003. Casein for correction of defects caused by Brettanomyces and Dekkera. Semana Vitivinícola, 58: 1462–1463

Salameh D., Brandam C., Medawar W., Lteif R., Sthrehaiano P. 2008. Highlight on the problems generated by p-coumaric acid analysis in wine fermentations. Food Chem., 107: 1661–1667, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.052

Serpaggi V., Remize F., Recorbet G., Gaudot-Dumas E., Sequeira-Le Grand A., Alexandre H. 2012. Characterization of the “viable but nonculturable” (VBNC) state in the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces. Food Microbiol., 30: 438–447, DOI: 10.1016/j.fm.2011.12.020

Chassagne D., Guilloux-Benatier M., Alexandre H., Voilley A. 2005. Sorption of wine volatile phenols by yeast lees. Food Chem., 91: 39–44, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.05.044

Steensels J., Daenen L., Malcorps P., Derdelinckx G., Verachtert H., Verstrepen K. J. 2015. Brettanomyces yeasts — From spoilage organisms to valuable contributors to industrial fermentations, International Journal of Food Microbiology, 206: 24–38, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.04.005.

Silva I., Campos M. F., Hogg T., Couto J. A. 2011. Factors influencing the production of volatile phenols by wine lactic acid bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 145: 471–475, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.01.029

Steinke R. D., Paulson M.C. 1964. The production of steam-volatile phenols during the cooking and alcoholic fermentation of grain. J. Agric. Food Chem., 12: 381–387, DOI: 10.1021/jf60134a022

Sturm M. E., Assof M., Fanzone M., Martinez C., Ganga M. A., Jofré V., Ramirez M. L., Combina M. 2015. Relation between coumarate decarboxylase and vinylphenol reductase activity with regard to the production of volatile phenols by native Dekkera bruxellensis strains under 'wine-like' conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 206: 51–5. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.04.023.

Suárez R., Suárez-Lepe J.A., Morata A., Calderón F. 2007. The production of ethylphenols in wine by yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces and Dekkera: A review. Food Chem., 102: 10–21, DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.030

Suezawa Y. 1995. Bioconversions of ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid to volatile phenols by halotolerant yeasts, studies of halotolerant yeasts in soy sauce making. Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan, 69: 1587–1596, DOI: 10.1271/nogeikagaku1924.69.1587

Toit M., Pretorius I. S. 2000. Microbial spoilage and preservation of wine: using weapons from nature’s own arsenal - a review. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 21: 74–92.

Ugarte P., Agosin E., Bordeu E., Villalobos J. I. 2005. Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol concentration in red wines using reverse osmosis and adsorption. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 56: 30–36

Umiker N. L., Edwards C. G. 2007. Impact of sulfur dioxide on culturability and viability of Brettanomyces in wine. American journal for Enology and Viticulture, 58(3): 417A

Vigentini I., Romano A., Compagno C., Merico A., Molinari F., Tirelli A., Foschino R., Volonterio G., 2008. Physiological and oenological traits of different Dekkera/ Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains under wine-model conditions. FEMS Yeast Res., 8: 1087–1096, DOI: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2008.00395.x

Wedral D., Shewfelt R., Frank J. 2010. The challenge of Brettanomyces in wine. LWT Food Sci. Tech., 43: 1474–9, DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2010.06.010

Downloads

Published

26. 10. 2016

Issue

Section

Agronomy section

How to Cite

Šućur, S., ČADEŽ, N., & KOŠMERL, T. (2016). Volatile phenols in wine: Control measures of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeasts. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 107(2), 453-472. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2016.107.2.17

Similar Articles

1-10 of 452

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.