In vitro application of integrated selection index for screening drought tolerant genotypes in common wheat


  • Ezatollah FARSHADFAR Razi University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Sciences and Agricultural Engineering, Kermanshah, Iran.
  • Reza Amiri Razi University, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Sciences and Agricultural Engineering, Kermanshah, Iran.



biplot analysis, mature embryo culture, drought stress, physiological indicators, principal component analysis, Triticum aestivum


This experiment was conducted on 20 wheat genotypes during 2010-2011 growing season at the Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. A completely randomized design with six replications was used for callus induction and a 20 × 2 factorial experiment with three replications was used for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress. ANOVA exhibited highly significant differences among the genotypes for callus growth rate, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate, callus water content, percent of callus chlorosis and proline content under stress condition (15 % PEG). PCA showed that the integrated selection index was correlated with callus growth index, relative fresh mass growth, relative growth rate and proline content indicating that these screening techniques can be useful for selecting drought tolerant genotypes. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes 2, 18 and 10 as the most drought tolerant. Therefore they are recommended to be used as parents for genetic analysis, gene mapping and improvement of drought tolerance.


Abdelsamad, A., El–Sayed, O.E., & Ibrahim, F. (2007). Development of drought tolerance haploid wheat using biochemical genetic markers on in vitro culture. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(11), 1589-1599.

Abdulaziz, M., & Al-Bahrany, A.M. (2002). Callus growth and praline accumulation in response to polyethyleneglycol-induced osmotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Biological Sciences, 5(12), 1294-1296

Amiri, R., Bahraminejad, S., & Jalali-Honarmand, S. (2013). Effect of terminal drought stress on grain yield and some morphological traits in 80 bread wheat genotypes. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 5(10), 1145-1153.

Anjum, S.A., Xie, X.Y., Wang, L.C., Saleem, M.F., Man, C., & Lei, W. (2011). Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses of plants to drought stress. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(9), 2026-2032.

Araus, J.L., Salfer, M.P., Royo, C., & Serett, M.D. (2008). Breeding for yield potential and stress adaptation in cereals. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 27(6), 377-412. Doi: 10.1080/07352680802467736

Bajji, M., Bertin, P., Lutts, S., & Kinet, J.M. (2004). Evaluation of drought resistance? Related traits in durum wheat somaclonal lines selected in vitro. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44, 27-35. Doi: 10.1071/EA02199

Bayoumi, T.Y., Eid, M.H., & Metwali, E.M. (2008). Application of physiological and biochemical indices as a screening technique for drought tolerance in wheat genotypes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(14), 2341-2352.

Binott, J.J., Songa, J.M., Ininda, J., Njagi, E.M., & Machuka, J. (2009). Plant regeneration from immature embryos of Kenyan maize inbred lines and their respective single cross hybrids through somatic embryogenesis. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(8), 981-987.

Birsin, M.A., & Ozgen, M. (2004). A comparison of callus induction and plant regeneration from different embryo explants of triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack). Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters, 9, 353-361.

Chen, J.J., Yue, R.Q., Xu, H.X., & Chen, X.J. (2006). Study on plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos under endosperm supported culture. Agricultural Sciences in China, 5(8), 572-578. Doi: 10.1016/S1671-2927(06)60094-1

Compton, M.E. (1994). Statistical methods suitable for the analysis of plant tissue culture data. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 37, 217-242.

Errabi, T., Gandonou, C.B., Essalmani, M., Abrini, J., Idaomar, M., & Skali-Senhagi, N. (2006). Growth, proline and ion accumulation in sugarcane callus caltures under drought-induced osmotic stress and its subsequent relief. African Journal of Biotechnology, 5(16), 1488-1493.

Farshadfar, E. (2012). Application of integrated selection index and rank sum for screening drought tolerant genotypes in bread wheat. International Journal of Agriculture and Crop Sciences, 4-6, 325-332.

Farshadfar, E., & Elyasi P. (2012). Screening quantitative indicators of drought tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) landraces. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(3), 577-584.

Farshadfar E., Elyasi P., Aghaee M. 2012. In Vitro selection for drought tolerance in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L) genotypes by mature embryo culture. American Journal of Scientific Research, 48, 102-115

Farshadfar, E., Poursiahbidi, M.M., Safavi, S.M., & Vosough, A. (2013a). Screening of Drought Tolerant Genotypes in Bread Wheat using a New Integrated Selection Index. Advanced Crop Science, 3(3), 237-246.

Farshadfar, E., Safavi, S.M., & Vosough, A. (2013b). Chromosomal localization of the genes, controlling a new integrated selection index for improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. Advanced Crop Science, 3(2), 209-217.

Gawande, N.D., Mahurkar, D.G., Rathod, T.H., Jahagidar, S.W., & Shinde, M. (2005). In vitro screening of wheat genotypes for drought tolerance. Annals of Plant Physiology, 19, 162-168.

Ghasemali, N., Soheil, Z., & Mohammad, S.M. (2011). Study of effects late season drought stress in wheat cultivars using stress susceptibility, tolerance indices and canopy temperature depression (CTD). Advances in Environmental Biology, 5, 3929-3933.

Ilker, E., Tatar, Ö., Aykut Tonk, F., & Tosun, M. (2011). Determination of tolerance level of some wheat genotypes to post-anthesis drought. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 16(1), 59-63.

Khakwani, A.A., Dennett, M.D., & Munir, M. (2011). Drought tolerance screening of wheat varieties by inducing water stress conditions. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology, 33(2), 135-142.

Khalili, M., Pour Aboughadareh, A., & Naghavi, M.R. (2013). Screening of drought tolerant cultivars in barley using morpho-physiological traits and Integrated Selection Index under water deficit stress condition. Advanced Crop Science, 3(7), 462-471.

Khan, S., Khan, J., Islam, N., & Islam, M. (2011). Screening and evaluation of wheat germplasm for yield, drought and disease resistance under rainfed conditions of upland Baluchistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 559-563.

Leilah, A.A., & AL-Khateeb, S.A. (2005). Statistical analysis of wheat yield under drought conditions. Journal of Arid Environments, 61(3), 483-496. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.10.011

Mahmood, I., Razzaq, A., Khan, Z., Hafiz, I.A., & Kaleem, S. (2012). Evaluation of tissue culture responses of promising wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and development of efficient regeneration system. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44, 277-284.

Mohammadi, R., Sadeghzadeh, D., Armion, M., & Amri, A. (2011). Evaluation of durum wheat experimental lines under different climate and water regime strategies. Crop and Pasture Science, 62(2), 137-151. Doi: 10.1071/CP10284

Murashige, T., & Skooge, F. (1962). A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Plant Physiology, 15, 473-497. Doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1962.tb08052.x

Pan, X.Y., Wang, Y.F., Wang, G.X., Cao, Q.D., & Wang, J. (2002). Relationship between growth redundancy and size inequality in spring wheat populations mulched with clear plastic film. Acta Phytoecology Sinica, 26, 177-184.

Shah, M.M., Khalid, Q., Khan, U.W., Shah, S.A.H., Shah, S.H., Hassan, A., & Pervez, A. (2009). Variation in genotypic responses and biochemical analysis of callus induction in cultivated wheat. Genetics and Molecular Research, 8(3), 783-793. Doi: 10.4238/vol8-3gmr513

Sankar, B., Jaleel, C., Manivannan, P., Kishorekuma, A., Somasundaram, R., & Panneerselvan, R. (2007). Drought-induced biochemical modification and proline metabolism in Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench. Acta botanica Croatica, 66, 43-56.

Sorkheh, K., Shiran, B., Khodambshi, M., Rouhi, V., & Ercisli, S. (2011). In vitro assay of native Iranian almond species (Prunus L. spp.) for drought tolerance. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 105, 395-404. Doi: 10.1007/s11240-010-9879-1

Vasil, I.K. (2003). The science and politics of plant biotechnology—a personal perspective. Nature Biotechnology, 21, 849-851. Doi: 10.1038/nbt0803-849

Yan, W., & Kang, M.S. (2003). Biplot Analysis: A graphical Tool for Breeders, Geneticists and Agronomist, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 313.

Yea, Y., Wang, G., Huang, Y., Zhu, Y., Meng, Q., Chen, X., Zhang, F., & Cui, Z. (2011). Understanding physiological processes associated with yield–trait relationships in modern wheat varieties. Field Crops Research, 124, 316-322. Doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2011.06.023

Zair, I., Chlyah, A., Sabounji, K., Titahsen, M., & Chlyah, H. (2003). Salt tolerance improvement in some wheat cultivars after application of in vitro selection pressure. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, 73, 237-244. Doi: 10.1023/A:1023014328638

Zali, H., Farshadfar, E., & Sabaghpour S.H. (2011). Non-parametric analysis of phenotypic stability in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes in Iran. Crop Breeding Journal, 1(1), 85-96.



26. 10. 2016



Agronomy section

How to Cite

FARSHADFAR, E., & Amiri, R. (2016). In vitro application of integrated selection index for screening drought tolerant genotypes in common wheat. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 107(2), 335-344.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 631

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.