Insecticidal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and Beauveria bassiana TS11 on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)


  • Zahra KHOOSHE-BAST Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
  • Najmeh Sahebzadeh University of Zabol, Iran
  • Mansour GHAFFARI-MOGHADDAM Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
  • Ali MIRSHEKAR Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran



entomopathogenic fungus, nanoparticle, metal oxide, insecticide, bioassay


Greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum is a major pest of horticultural and ornamental plants and is usually controlled with insecticides or biological control agents. In the current study, we examined the effects of synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and Beauveria bassiana TS11 on T. vaporariorum adults. ZnO NPs were synthesized by precipitation method. Field emission scanning electron microscope images indicated that ZnO NPs were non-compacted uniformly. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO NPs. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed an intense absorption peak at a range of 434-555 cm-1 related to Zn-O bond. In bioassays, adults were exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (3, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg l-1) and fungi (104, 105, 106, 107, 108 spores ml-1). LC50 values for ZnO NPs and fungi were 7.35 mg l-1and 3.28×105 spores ml-1, respectively. Mortality rates obtained with ZnO NPs and fungi at the highest concentration were 91.6 % and 88.8 %, respectively. The results indicate a positive effect of ZnO NPs and B. bassiana TS11on adults. The current study was conducted under laboratory conditions, therefore, more studies are needed in field.

Author Biographies

  • Najmeh Sahebzadeh, University of Zabol, Iran
    Department of Plant Protection
  • Mansour GHAFFARI-MOGHADDAM, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran
    Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zabol, Zabol


AbdElhady M.M. 2012. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/zinc oxide nanoparticles for imparting antimicrobial and UV protection to cotton fabric. International Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry: 1-6. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1155/2012/840591.

Auffan M., Rose J., Bottero J.Y., Lowry G.V., Jolivet J.P., Wiesner M.R. 2009. Towards a definition of inorganic nanoparticles from an environmental, health and safety perspective. Nat. Nanotechnol. 4: 634-641. DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2009.242.

Brayner R., Ferrari-Iliou R., Brivois N., Djedia S., Benedetti M.F., Fievet F. 2006. Toxicological impact studies based on Escherichia coli bacteria in ultra ZnO nanoparticles colloidal medium. Nano. Lett. 6: 866.

Chaudhry Q., Scotter M., Blackburn J., Ross B., Boxall A., Castle L., Aitken R., Watkins R. 2008. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector. Food Addit. Contam. A 25 (3): 241-258. DOI: 10.1080/02652030701744538.

Clausen C.A, Kartal. SN., Arango R.A., Green F. 2011. The role of particle size of particulate nano-zinc oxide wood preservatives on termite mortality and leach resistance. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6: 42. DOI: 10.1186/1556-276X-6-427.

El-Sinary N.H., Rizk S.A. 2007. Entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and gamma irradiation efficiency against the greater wax moth, Galleria melonella (L.). Am-Euras. J. Sci. Res. 2 (1): 13-18.

Fan Y., Fang W., Guo S., Pei X., Zhang Y., Xiao Y., Li D., Jin K., Bidochka M.J., Pei Y. 2007. Increased insect virulence in Beauveria bassiana strains overexpressing an engineered chitinase. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73(1): 295-302. DOI:10.1128/AEM.01974-06.

Goswami A., Roy I., Sengupta S., Debnath N. 2010. Novel applications of solid and liquid formulations of nanoparticles against insect pests and pathogens. Thin Solid Films. 519 (3): 1252-1257. DOI:10.1016/j.tsf.2010.08.079.

Gupta A.K., Gupta M. 2005. Synthesis and surface engineering of iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications. Biomaterials. 26 (18): 3995-4021. DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2004.10.012.

Gurulingappa P., McGee P.A., Sword G. 2011. Endophytic Lecanicillium lecanii and Beauveria bassiana reduce the survival and fecundity of Aphis gossypii following contact with conidia and secondary metabolites. Crop Prot. 30: 349 - 353. DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.11.017.

Guzman P., Arredondo C.R., Emmatty D., Gilbertson R.L. 1997. Partial characterization of two whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses infecting tomatoes in Venezuela. Plant Dis. 81 (3): 312-318. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1094/PDIS.1997.81.3.312A.

Hayashi H. 1996. Side effects of pesticides on Encarsia Formosa Gahban. Bulletin of the Hiroshima Prefectural Agriculture Research Center. 64: 33-43.

Inglis G.D., Goettel M.S., Butt T.M., Strasser H. 2001. Use of hyphomycetous fungi for managing insect pests. In Butt T.M.,

Jackson C., Magan, N. (Eds), Fungi as biocontrol agents: progress problems and potential (pp. 23-69). New York: CABI.

Kairyte K., Kadys A., Luksiene Z. 2013. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of photoactivated ZnO nanoparticles in suspension. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 128: 78-84. DOI:10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2013.07.017.

Khosravi R., Sendi J.J., Zibaee A., Shokrgozar M.A., 2014. Virulence of four Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) (Asc., Hypocreales) isolates on rose sawfly, Arge rosae under laboratory condition. J. King Saud Uni-Sci 27 (1): 49-53. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1016/j.jksus.2014.04.003.

Kirthi A.V., Rahuman A.A., Rajakumar G., Marimuthu S., Santhoshkumar T., Jayaseelan C., Velayutham K. 2011. Acaricidal, pediculocidal and larvicidal activity of synthesized ZnO nanoparticles using wet chemical route against blood feeding parasites. Parasitol. Res. 109: 461-472. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-011-2277-8.

Lacey L.A., Frutos R., Kaya H.K., Vail P. 2001. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Do they have a future?. Biol. Control. 21 (3): 230-248. DOI: 10.1006/bcon.2001.0938.

Laznik Z., Trdan S. 2014. The influence of insecticides on the viability of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) under laboratory conditions. Pest Manag. Sci. 70(5): 784-789. DOI: 10.1002/ps.3614.

Laznik Z., Znidarcic D., Trdan S. 2011. Control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) adults on glasshouse-grown cucumbers in four different growth substrates: An efficacy comparison of foliar application of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and spraying with thiamethoxam. Turk. J. Agric. For. 35: 631-640. DOI: 10.3906/tar-1007-1110.

Lozano-Gutierrez J., Espana-Luna M. 2008. Pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) against the white grub Laniifera cyclades (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) under field and greenhouse conditions. Fla. Entomol. 91 (4): 664-668. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1653/0015-4040-91.4.664.

Magrez S., Kasas V., Salicio N., Pasquier J., Seo W., Celio M., Catsicas S., Schwaller B., Forro L. 2006. Cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials. Nano Lett. 6 (6): 1121-1125. DOI: 10.1021/nl060162e.

Manzo S., Rocco A., Carotenuto R., Picione F.D.L., Miglietta M.L., Rametta G.D., Francia G. 2011. Investigation of ZnO nanoparticles’ecotoxicological effects towards different soil organisms. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 18: 756-763. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-010-0421-0.

Mascarin G.M., Kobori N.N., Quintela E.D., Delalibera J.I. 2013. The virulence of entomopathogenic fungi against Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and their conidial production using solid substrate fermentation. Biol. Control. 66: 209-218. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.05.001.

Mitra S., Chandra S., Laha D., Patra P., Debnath N., Pramanik A., Pramanik P., Goswami A., 2012. Unique chemical grafting of carbon nanoparticle on fabricated ZnO nanorod: Antibacterial and bioimaging property. Mater Res. Bull. 47 (3): 586-594. DOI: 10.1016/j.materresbull.2011.12.036.

Morones J.R., Elechiguerra J.L., Camacho A., Holt K., Kouri J.B., Ramirez J.T., Yacaman M.J. 2005. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 16 (10): 2346. DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/16/10/059.

Muniz M., Nombela G. 2001. Differential variation in development of the B - and Q - Biotypes of Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) on sweet pepper at constant temperatures. Environ. Entomol. 30 (4): 720-727. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1603/0046-225X-30.4.720.

Mustu M., Demirci F., Kocak E. 2011. Mortality effects of Isaria farinosae (Holm.) and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales) on Aelia rostrata Boh. (Hemipterab: Pentatomidae). Turkish Journal of Entomology. 35(4): 559-568.

Rai M., Ingle A. 2012. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 94: 287-293.

Ramos E.Q., Alves S.B., Tanzini M.R., Lopes R.B. 2000. Susceptibilidade de Bemisia tabaci a Beauveria bassiana en condiciones de laboratorio. Manejo Integrado de Plagas. 56: 65-69.

Reddy K.M., Feris K., Bell J., Wingett D.G., Hanley C., Punnoose A. 2007. Selective toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles to prokaryotic and eukaryotic system. Appl. Phys. Lett. 90: 213902. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1063/1.2742324.

Rouhani M., Samih M.A., Aslani A., Beiki K. 2011. Side effect of nano-ZnO - Tio2 - Ag mix-oxide nanoparticles on Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thys.: Thripidae). In Proceedings Symposium: Third International Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. East China Normal University, Shanghai, China. 2-5.

Rouhani M., Samih M.A., Kalantari S. 2012. Insecticide effect of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Aphis nerii boyer de fonscolombe (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Chilean JAR. 72 (4): 590-594.

Samih M.A., Rouhani M., Aslani A., Beiki K., 2011. Insecticidal properties of amitraz, nano - amitraz, nano - ZnO and nano – ZnO - Al2O3 nanoparticles on Agonoscena pistaciae (Hem.: Aphelaridae). In Proceedings Symposium: Third International

Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. East China Normal University. Shanghai, China. 131.

Samuel U., Guggenbichler J.P. 2004. Prevention of catheter-related infections: The potential of a new nano - silver impregnated catheter. Int. J. Antimicrob. Ag. 23 (1): 75-78. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2003.12.004.

Sandhu S.S., Sharma A.K., Beniwal V., Goel G., Batra P., Kumar A., Jaglan S., Malhotra S., 2012. Myco - Biocontrol of insect pests: Factors involved, mechanism and regulation. J. Pathogens. 1-10. DOI: 10.1155/2012/126819.

Sewify G.H., Belal M.H., Al-Awash S.A. 2009. Use of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana for the biological control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier. Egypt J. Biol. Pest Control. 19 (2): 157-163.

Shi W.B., Feng M.G. 2004. Lethal effect of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus on the eggs of Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) with a description of a mite egg bioassay system. Biol. Control. 30 (2): 165-173. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2004.01.017.

Suwanboon S., Amornpitoksuk P., Sukolrat A., Muensit N. 2013. Optical and photocatalyctic properties of La-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared via precipitation and mechanical milling method. Ceram Int. 39: 2811-2819. DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2012.09.050.

Tefera T., Pringle K.L. 2004. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Maize. Biocontrol Sci. Techn. 14 (8): 849-853. DOI: 10.1080/0958315041000172707.

Umar A., Rahman A., Vaseem M., Hahn Y.B. 2009. Ultra-sensitive cholesterol biosensor based on low - temperature grown ZnO nanoparticles. Electrochem. Commun. 11 (1): 118-121. DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2008.10.046.

Van Lenteren J.C., Van Roermund H.J.W., Sutterlin S., 1996. Biological control of Greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) with the Parasitoid Encarsia formosa: How does it work?. Biol Control. 6 (1): 1-10. DOI: 10.1006/bcon.1996.0001.

Velayutham K., Rahuman A.A., Rajakumar G., Roopan S.M., Elango G., Kamaraj C., Siva C. 2013. Larvicidal activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using bark aqueous extract of Ficus racemosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex gelidus. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med. 95-101. DOI: 0.1016/S1995-7645(13)60002-4.

Whalon M.E., Mota-Sanchez D., Hollingworth R.M. 2008. Analysis of global pesticide resistance in arthropods. In Whalon M.E., Mota-Sanchez D., Hollingworth R.M. (Eds.), Global pesticide resistance in Arthropods (pp. 5-31). CABI, Wallingford, UK.

Wraight S.P., Carruthers R.I., Bradley C.A., Jaronski S.T., Lacey L.A., Wood P., Galaini-Wraight S. 1998. Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungi Paecilomyces spp. and Beauveria bassiana against the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 71: 217-226. DOI: 10.1006/jipa.1997.4734.

Wraight S.P., Carruthers R.I., Jaronski S.T., Bradley C.A., Garza C.J, Galaini-Wraight S. 2000. Evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus for microbial control of the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii. Biol. Control. 17: 203-217. DOI: 10.1006/bcon.1999.0799.

Wraight S.P., Ramos M.E., Avery P.B., Jaronski S.T., Vandenberg J.D. 2010. Comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates against lepidopteran pests of vegetable crops. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 103: 186-199. DOI: 10.1016/j.jip.2010.01.001.

Zhang L., Jiang Y., Ding Y., Povey M., York D. 2007. Investigation into the antibacterial behaviour of suspensions of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO nanofluids). J. Nanopart. Res. 9 (3): 479-489. DOI: 10.1007/s11051-006-9150-1.

Zhu Y., Yu F., Man Y., Tian Q., He Y., Wu N. 2005. Preparation and performances of nanosized Ta2O5 powder photocatalyst. J. Solid State Chem. 178: 224-229. DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2004.11.015.



26. 10. 2016



Agronomy section

How to Cite

KHOOSHE-BAST, Z., Sahebzadeh, N., GHAFFARI-MOGHADDAM, M., & MIRSHEKAR, A. (2016). Insecticidal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and Beauveria bassiana TS11 on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 107(2), 299-309.

Similar Articles

11-20 of 99

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.