Evaluation of genetic diversity and traits relations in wheat cultivars under drought stress using advanced statistical methods


  • Mohammad Reza Naghavi Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran
  • Marouf Khalili Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Iran




correlation, drought stress, factor analysis, path analysis, physio-agronomic traits, wheat


In order to study of genetic diversity and classify physio-agronomic characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in wheat cultivars, 15 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Mahabad, Iran. According to stepwise regression some of traits entered to final model that as far to correlation coefficients and path analysis regarding, the biggest part of correlation coefficient and direct effect was achieved for number of grains per spike, number spikes per plant with grain yield under two conditions. These traits had the highest indirect effect on the grain yield mutually. So, screening for high value for these traits can bring increase in wheat grain yield under two conditions. Factor analysis detected three and four factors which explained 91.23 and 92.43 percent of the total variation in non-drought stress and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor, second factor, third factor and fourth factors were named as yield component, physiological, biomass and growth, and yield factor respectively. Cluster analysis based on the three and four factors grouped cultivars into the two groups under normal and three groups under drought stress conditions. Generally, tolerant cultivars can be used for direct culture or as parents for create of variation in breeding programs.


Ashraf, M. Y. (1998). Yield and yield component response of wheat (Trittium aestivum L.) genotypes grown under different soil water deficit conditions. Acta Agronomica Hungarica, 46, 45-51.

Asseng, S., Turnera, N. C., Rayb, J. D., Keatingc, B. A. (2002). A simulation analysis that predicts the influence of physiological traits on the potential yield of wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 17(2), 123-141. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(01)00149-6

Baik, B. K., Ulrich, E. (2008). Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science, 48(2), 233-242. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2008.02.002

Baranwal, D. K., Mishra, V. K., Vishwakarma, M. K., Yadav, P. S., Arun, B. (2012). Studies on genetic variability, correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing traits in wheat (T. aestivum L. em Thell.). Plant Archives, 12(1), 99-104.

Belay, G., Tesemma, T., Becker, H. C., Merker, A. (1993). Variation and interrelationships of agronomic traits in Ethiopian tetraploid wheat landraces. Euphytica, 71, 181-188. doi:10.1007/BF00040407

Blum, A. (2005). Mitigation of drought stress by crop management. http://www.plantstress.com/articles/drought _m7drought_m.htm.

Board, J. E., Kang, M.S., Harville, B. G. (1997). Path analyses identify indirect selection criteria for yield of late-planted soybean. Crop Science, 37, 879-884. doi:10.2135/cropsci1997.0011183X003700030030x

Bramel, P. J., Hinnz, P. N., Green, D. E., Shibles, R. M. (1984). Use of principal factor analysis in the study of three stem termination types of soybean. Euphytica, 33, 387- 400. doi:10.1007/BF00021136

Damania, A. B., Jackson, M. T. (1986). An application of factor analysis to morphological data of wheat and barley landraces from the Bheri River Valley, Nepal. Rachis, 5, 25-30.

Dawari, N. H., Luthra, O. P. (1991). Character association studies under high and low environments in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 25, 515-518.

Delmer, D. P. (2005). Agriculture in the developing world: connecting innovations in plant research to downstream applications. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102, 15739-15746. doi:10.1073/pnas.0505895102

Dewey, D. R., Lu, K. H. (1959). Correlation and path-coefficient analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. Agronomy Journal, 51, 515-518. doi:10.2134/agronj1959.00021962005100090002x

Dokuyucu, T., Akkaya, A. (1999). Path coefficient analysis and correlation of grain yield and yield components of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. RACHIS Newsletter, 18, 17-20.

El-Deeb, A. A., Mohamed N. A. (1999). Factor and cluster analysis for some quantitative characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). The Annual Conference ISSR, Cairo University, 4-6 December,Vol. 34, Part (II).

Farshadfar, E. (2012). Application of integrated selection index and rank sum for screening drought tolerant genotypes in bread wheat, IJACS, 4(6), 325-332.

Fatemi Rika, Z., Paknejhad, F., Amiri, E., Eilkaee, M. N., Mirtaheri, S. M. (2013). Investigation of traits correlations and path analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seed yield under terminal drought-stress conditions. International Journal of Biosciences, 3(11), 115-121.

Food and Agriculture Organization (2016). Statistics: FAOSTAT agriculture. from http://fao.org/crop/statistics.

Garavandi, M., Kahrizi, D. (2010). Evaluation of genetic diversity of bread wheat genotypes for phenologic and morphologic traits. The 11th Crop Science and Plant Breeding Congress Iran, pp: 537-541.

Garcia del Moral, L. F., Rharrabti, Y., Villegas, D., Royo, C. (2003). Evaluation of grain yield and its components in durum wheat under Mediterranean conditions: an ontogenic approach. Agronomy Journal, 95, 266-274. doi:10.2134/agronj2003.0266

Gholamin, R., Zaeifizadeh, M., Khayatnezhad, M. (2010). Factor analysis for performance and other characteristics in durum wheat under drought stress and without stress. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 6(6), 599-603.

Golparvar, A. R., Ghannadha, M. R., Zhalli, A. A., Ahmadi, A. (2002). Evaluation of some morphological traits as selection criteria for improvement of bread wheat. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 4(3), 202-207. (In Persian)

Harman, H. H. (1976). Modern Factor Analysis. 3rt Ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. pp: 376.

Jaynes, D. B., Kaspar, T. C., Colvin, T. S., James, D. E. (2003). Cluster analysis of spatio temporal corn yield pattern in an Iowa field. Agronomy Journal, 95(3), 574-586. doi:10.2134/agronj2003.0574

Kahrizi, D., Maniee, M., Mohamadi, R., Cheghamirza, K. (2010). Estimation of genetic parameters related to morpho-agronomic traits of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum). Biharean Biologist, 4(2), 93-97.

Kang, M. S., Miller, J. D., Tai, P. Y. P. (1983). Genetic and phenotypic path analyses and heritability in sugarcane. Crop Science, 23, 643-647. doi:10.2135/cropsci1983.0011183X002300040010x

Kashif, M., Khaliq, I. (2004). Heritability, correlation and path analysis for some metric traits in wheat. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 6, 138-142.

Khalili, M., Pour Aboughadareh, A. R., Naghavi, M. R., Naseri Rad, H. (2013). Path analysis of the relationships between seed yield and some of morphological traits in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under normal irrigated and rainfed conditions. Technical Journal of Engineering Applied Science, 3(15), 1692-1696.

Khayatnezhad, M., Zaefizadeh, M., Gholamin, R., Jamaati Somarin, S., Zabihi Mahmoodabad, R. (2010). Study of morphological traits of wheat cultivars through factor analysis. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 9(5), 460-464.

Kutlu, I., Kinaci, G. (2010). Evaluation of drought resistance indicates for yield and its components in three Triticale Cultivars. Journal of Tekirdag Agricultural Faculty, 7(2), 95-103.

Kumbhar, M. B., Larik, A. S., Hafiz, H. M., Rind, M. J. (1983). Interrelationship of polygenic traits affecting grain yield in Triticum aestivum L.. Wheat Information Services, 57, 42-45.

Leilah, A., Al-Khateeb, S. A. (2005). Statistical analysis of wheat yield under drought conditions. Journal of Arid Environmental, 61, 483-496. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.10.011

Lorencetti, C., de Carvalho, F. I. F., de Oliveira, A. C., Valério, I. P., Hartwig, I., Benin, G., Schmidt, D. A. M. (2006). Applicability of phenotypic and canonic correlations and path coefficients in the selection of oat genotypes. Science of Agriculture (Piracicaba Brazillian), 63, 11-19. doi:10.1590/S0103-90162006000100003

Martinez, J. P., Lutls, S., Schanck, A., Bajji, M. (2004). Is osmotic adjustment required for water stress resistance in the Mediterranean shrub Atriplex halmius L.? Plant Physiology, 161, 1041-1051. doi:10.1016/j.jplph.2003.12.009

Milligan, S. B., Gravois, K. A., Bischoff, K. P., Martin, F. A. (1990). Crop effects on genetic relationships among sugarcane traits. Crop Science, 30, 927-931. doi:10.2135/cropsci1990.0011183X003000040034x

Moghaddam, M., Ehdaie, B., Waines, J. G. (1997). Genetic variation and interrelationships of agronomic characters in landraces of bread wheat from southeastern Iran. Euphytica, 95, 361-369. doi:10.1023/A:1003045616631

Moghaddam, M., Ehdaie, B., Waines, J. G. (1998). Genetic variation for and inter-relationships among agronomic traits in landraces of bread wheat from southwestern Iran. Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 52(1), 73-81.

Mohamed, N. A. (1999). Some statistical procedures for evaluation of the relative contribution for yield components in wheat. Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(2), 281-290.

Mohammadi, M., Ghannadha, M. R., Tale'ee, A. R. (2002). Study of the genetic variation within Iranian local bread wheat lines using multivariate techniques. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 18(3), 328-347. (In Persian).

Mohiuddin, S. H., Cory, L. I. (1980). Flag leaf and peduncle area duration in relation to winter wheat grain yield. Agronomy Journal, 72, 299-301. doi:10.2134/agronj1980.00021962007200020011x

Mollasadeghi, V., Valizadeh, M., Shahryariand, R. A., Imani, A. (2011). Evaluation of end drought tolerance of 12 wheat genotypes by stress in dices. MEJSR, 7(2), 241-247.

Moustafa, M. A., Boersma, L., Kronstad, W. E. (1996). Response of four spring wheat cultivars to drought stress. Crop Science, 36, 982-986. doi:10.2135/cropsci1996.0011183X003600040027x

Naghavi, M. R., Moghaddam, M., Toorchi, M., Shakiba, M. R. (2014). Evaluation of the relationship between morphological and agronomic traits with grain yield in spring wheat cultivars under drought stress. International Journal of Biosciences, 5(3), 88-93. doi:10.12692/ijb


Naghavi, M. R., Toorchi, M., Moghaddam, M., Shakiba, M. R. (2015). Evaluation of diversity and traits correlation in spring wheat cultivars under drought stress. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 7(3), 349-354. doi:10.15835/nsb.7.3.9592

Passioura, J. B. (1997). Grain yield, harvest index and water use of wheat. Journal of Australian Institute Agricultural Science, 43, 117-120.

Plaut, Z., Butow, B. J., Blumenthal, C. S., Wrigley, C. W. (2004). Transport of dry matter into developing wheat kernels. Field Crops Research, 86, 185-198. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2003.08.005

Rajala, A., Hakala, K., Makela, P., Muurinen, S., Peltonen-Sainio, P. (2009). Spring wheat response to timing of water deficit through sink and grain filling capacity. Field Crop Research, 114, 263-271. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2009.08.007

Shams-ud-din, A. K. M. (1987). Path analysis in bread wheat. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 1(3), 237-240.

Shanahan, J. F., Donnelly, K. J., Smith, D. H., Sminka, D E. (1985). Shoot developmental properties associated with grain yield in winter wheat. Crop Science, 25, 770-775. doi:10.2135/cropsci1985.0011183X0025000500011x

Sharma, S. K. (1985). Factor analysis of berry and its seed characteristics in potato. Plant Genetics and Breeding, 37, 77-82.

Sharma, S. C. Rao, S. R. G. (1989). Genetic variability, association among metric traits and path coefficient analysis in Triticale. Annual Agricultural Research, 10(2), 145-152.

Sheron Z. S., Lauthra O. P., Kuhad M. S. (1986). Association of physiological and biochemical character with the yield of rainfed fead. Plant Breeding, 56, 5427.

Simane, B., Struik, P. C., Nachit, M. M., Peacock, J. (1993). Ontogenetic analysis of yield components and yield stability of durum wheat in water-limited environments. Euphytica, 71, 211-219. doi:10.1007/BF00040410

Sinha, G. C. P., Sharma, N. N. (1979). Correlation regression and path analysis studies in wheat varieties. Indian Journal of Agronomy, 25, 225-229.

Subhani, G. M., Khaliq, I. (1994). Path coefficient analysis in wheat. Pakistan Journal of Science Industrial Research, 37(11), 474-476.

Tadesse, W., Bekele, E. (2001). Factor analysis of yield in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Lathyrus Lathyrism Newsletter, 2, 416-421.

Talebi, R., Fayaz, F., Mohammadi Naji, A. (2009). Effective selection criteria for assessing drought stress tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). General and Applied Plant Physiology, 35(1-2), 64-74.

Walton, P. D. (1971). The use of factor analysis in determining characters for yield selection in wheat. Euphytica, 20, 416-421. doi:10.1007/BF00035667

Walton, P. D. (1972). Factor analysis of yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Science, 12, 731-733. doi:10.2135/cropsci1972.0011183X001200060003x

Zakizadeh, M., Esmaeilzadeh, M., Kahrizi, D. (2010). Study on genetic variation and relationship between plant characteristics and yield in long spike bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes using multivariate analysis. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 12 (2), 18-30.



26. 09. 2017



Agronomy section

How to Cite

Naghavi, M. R., & Khalili, M. (2017). Evaluation of genetic diversity and traits relations in wheat cultivars under drought stress using advanced statistical methods. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 109(2), 403–415. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2017.109.2.23

Similar Articles

1-10 of 723

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.