Effects of zinc, boron and sulfur on grain yield, activity of some antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)


  • Tayebeh SHOJA University of Guilan, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht, Iran
  • Majid MAJIDIAN University of Guilan, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht, Iran
  • Mohammad RABIEE Rice Research Institute of Iran, Rasht, Iran




erucic acid, grain oil, linoleic acid, superoxide dismutase, rapeseed


A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of elements zinc (Zn), boron (B) and sulfur (S) and their interactions on quantitative and qualitative agronomic characteristics of rapeseed. Minimum grain oil and seed yield were obtained from control treatments and the highest seed yield were obtained from S + B + Zn treatments. The maximum of oleic acid (229.6 mg g-1) and linolenic acid (27.14 mg g-1) were obtained from B + Zn + S treatment. Maximum of linoleic acid (55.55 mg g-1) were obtained from B + Zn treatment. However, the highest superoxide dismutase activity was obtained from S + B + Zn treatments 10.24 unit mg-1 and the highest peroxidase activity were obtained from Zn treatment 0.87 µmol g-1 FM min. Regard to this experiment results, application of B, S and Zn fertilizers with NPK fertilizer can help to increase the yield and yield components in rapeseed. Also fatty acids composition of rapeseed are influenced by nutrients and since quality of edible oils depends on unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic acids and these acids are essential fatty acids for the human body that must be supplied through diet. Therefore this research showed that we are not only able only to increase oil yield but also oil quality with desired fatty acid composition.


Ahmad, G., Jan, A., Arif, M., Khattak, R. A. (2007). Influence of nitrogen and sulfur fertilization on quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) under rainfed conditions. Journal of Zhejiang University Science, 8, 731-737. https://doi.org/10.1631/jzus.2007.B0731

Anderson, J. W. (1975). The function of sulphur in plant growth and metabolism. Pages 87-97 In K. D. McLachlan, (Eds.), Sulphur in Australian agriculture. University Press, Sydney, Australia.

Bailly, C., Benamar, A., Corbineau, F., Come, D. (2000). Antioxidant systems in canola seeds as affected by priming. Seed Science Research, 10(2), 35-42. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0960258500000040

Beauchamp, C. & Fridovich, J. (1971). Superoxide dismutase: improved assays and an assay applicable to acrylamide gels. Annual Biochemistry, 44, 276-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(71)90370-8

Benton, J. J. (2001). Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. CRC Press. 363 P. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420025293

Bole, J. B., & Pittman, U. J. (1984). Availability of subsoil sulphate to barley and rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 64, 301-312. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss84-032

Brown, P. H., Cakmak, I., Zhang, Q. (1993). Form and function of zinc in plants. (PP. 93-106). In: A. D. Robson (Eds.), Zinc in soil and plants. Kluwar Academic Publishers. Dordecht, The Netherlands.

Brown, P. H., Bellaloui, N., Wimmer, M. A., Bassil, E. S., Ruiz, J., Hu, H., Pfeffer, H., Dannel, F., Römheld, V. (2002). Boron in plant biology, Plant Biology, 4, 205-223. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-25740

Bybordi, A. & Mamedov, G. (2010). Evaluation of application methods efficiency of zinc and iron for canola (Brassica napus L.). Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 2(1), 94-103.

Cakmak, I. (1997). Effect of different zinc application methods on grain yield and zinc concentration in wheat cultivars grown on zinc-deficient calcareous soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 20(4/5), 461-471.

Cakmak, I. (2008). Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification? Plant and Soil, 302, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-007-9466-3

Cakmak, I., Kalayci, M., Ekis, H., Brauni, J., Kilinc, Y., Yilmaz, A. (1999). Zn Deficiency as a practical problem in plant and human nutrition in Turkey: a NATO-science for stability project. Field Crop Research, 60, 175-188. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(98)00139-7

Cakmak, I., Yilmaz, A., Kalayli, E., Torun, B., Ernoglu, B., Brown, H. J. (1996). Zinc deficiency as a critical problem in wheat production in central Anatolia. Plant and Soil, 180, 165-172. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00015299

Cara, A. F., Sanchez, E., Ruiz, J. M., Rornero, L. (2002). Is phenol oxidation responsible for the short-term effects of boron deficiency on plasma membrane permeability and function in squash roots? Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 40, 853-858. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0981-9428(02)01447-X

Chance, B. & Maehly, S. K. (1955). Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology, 2, 764-775. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(55)02300-8

Chen, G., Nian, F. Z., Xu, F. S., Wang, Y. H. (2005). Effect of boron and molybdenum on yield and quality of two rapeseed cultivars. Plant Nutrition Fertility Science, (In Chinese), 11, 243–247.

Chu, T. D., Chen, J. J., Liu, C. Z., Xu, G. B. (1996). Study on reason of floral sterility of rape under boron deficient condition. Plant Nutrition Fertility Science, (In Chinese), 2(1), 23-31.

Clandinin, D. (1981). Canola meal for livestock and poultry. Publication No. 59. Canola Council of Canada, Winnipeg, MB. 25 pp.

Cormwell, G. L. (2000). An animal nutritionalist's view. P. 57-82. In C. F. Murphy and D. M. Peterson (Eds.). Desinging crops for added value. Agron, Monogr. 40. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI.

Cunnane, S.C. (1995). Metabolism and function of linolenic acid in humans. In: Cunnane, S. C., and L. U. Thompson (Eds.). Flax seed in human nutrition. Pp:99-127. AOCS, Press, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

Das, K., Dang, R., Shivananda, T. N., Sur, P. (2005). Interaction between phosphorus and zinc on the biomass yield and yield attributes of the medicinal plant stevia (Stevia rebaudiana). Science World Journal, 5, 390–395. https://doi.org/10.1100/tsw.2005.49

Dell, B., & Huang, L. B. (1997). Physiological response of plants to low boron. Plant and Soil, 193, 103–120. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004264009230

Dordas, C., & Brown, P. H. (2005). Boron deficiency affects cell viability, phenolic leakage and oxidative burst in rose cell cultures. Plant Cell Physiology, 268, 293-301. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-004-0309-1

Fang, Y., Wang, L., Xin, Z., Zhao, L., An, X., Hu, Q. (2008). Effect of foliar application of zinc, selenium, and iron fertilizers on nutrients concentration and yield of rice grain in China. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 56, 2079–2084. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf800150z

Foregoni, M., Boselli, M., Bartoletti, C., Dorotea, G. (1984). Effect of iron deficiency or an excess of leaf-applied iron on the mineral and biochemical composition and on the production parameters of chlorotic grapevines. Horticulture Abstract, 54, 95-110.

Habibi, D., Boojar, M. M., Mahmoudi, A., Ardekani, M. R., Taleghani, D. (2004). Antioxidative enzymes in sunflower subjected to drought stress. 4th International Crop Sci. Congress, Australia.

Hamm, J.W. (1967). Sulfur on rapeseed and cereals. Papers presented at the Eleventh Annual Manitoba Soil Science Meeting. University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. pp. 91-108.

Hemantaranjan, A., & Grag, O. K. (1998). Iron and zinc fertilization with reference to the grain quality of Triticum aestivum. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 11(6-11), 1439-1450. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904168809363900

Hosseni, S. M., Maftoun, M., Karimian, N., Rounaghi, A., Emam, Y. (2007). Effect of zinc×boron interaction on plant growth and tissue nutrient concentration of corn. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 30, 773-781. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160701289974

Huang, L. B., Pant, J., Dell, B., Bell, R. W. (2000). Effects of boron deficiency on anther development and floret fertility in wheat (Triticum aestivum ‘Wilgoyne’). Annals of Botany, 85, 493–500. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.1095

Gammelvind, L. H., Schjoerring, J. K., Mogensen, V. O., Jensen, C. R., Bock, J. G. H. (1996). Photosynthesis in leaves and siliques of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). Plant and Soil, 186, 227-236.

Gangadhara, G. A., Manjunathiah, H. M., Satyanarayana, T. (1990). Effect of sulphur on yield, oil content of sunflower and uptake of micronutrient by plants. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 38, 692-694.

Goldbach, H. E., Yu, Q., Wingender, R., Schulz, M., Wimmer, M., Findeklee, P., Baluska, F. (2001). Rapid response reaction of roots to boron deprivation. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 164, 173–181. https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2624(200104)164:2<173::AID-JPLN173>3.0.CO;2-F

Grant, C., Clayton, G. W., Johnston, A. M. (2003). Sulphur fertilizer and tillage effects on canola seed quality in the Black soil zones of western Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 83, 745-758. https://doi.org/10.4141/P02-107

Grant, C. A. & Bailey, L. D. (1993). Fertility management in canola production. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73, 651-670. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjps93-087

Grewal, H. S., Graham, R. D., Stangoulis, J. (1998). Zinc-boron interaction effects in oilseed rape. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 21(10), 2231-2243. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904169809365557

Grotz, N., & Guerinot, M. L. (2006). Molecular aspects of Cu, Fe and Zn homeostasis in plants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1763, 595- 607. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2006.05.014

Iwai, H., Hokura, A., Oishi, M., Chida, H., Ishii, T., Sakai, S., Satoh, S. (2006). The gene responsible for borate cross-linking of pectin rhamnogalacturonan-II is required for plant reproductive tissue development and fertilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.. 103, 16592-16597. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0605141103

Jiang, Y. & Huang, B. (2001). Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turf grasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41, 436-442. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci2001.412436x

Kaya, C., & Higgs, D. (2002). Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars to foliar application of zinc when grown in sand culture at low zinc. Scientia Horticulturae, 93, 53-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4238(01)00310-7

Lieten, P. (2002). Boron deficiency of strawberries grown in subtract culture. Acta Horticulturae, 567, 451-454. https://doi.org/10.17660/ActaHortic.2002.567.94

Liu, W. D. (1999). Microelements nutrition and application of micro-fertilizers (in Chinese). China Agricultural Press. Beijing.

Mc-Grath, S. P., & Zhao, F. J. (1996). Sulphur uptake, yield response and the interaction between nitrogen and sulphur in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 126, 53-62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600088808

Malhi, S. S., Schoenau, J. J., Grant, C. A. (2005). A review of sulphur fertilizer management for optimum yield and quality of canola in the Canadian Great Plains. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 85, 297-307. https://doi.org/10.4141/P04-140

Malhi, S. S., & Gil, K. S. (2002). Effectiveness of sulphate-S fertilization at different growth stages for yield, seed quality and S uptake of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 82, 665-674. https://doi.org/10.4141/P01-184

Malhi, S. S., Gan, Y., Raney, J. P. (2007). Yield, seed quality and sulfur uptake of Brassica oilseed crops in response to sulfur fertilization. Agronomy Journal, 99, 570-577. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2006.0269

Marschner, H. 1995. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. New York.

Marschner, H. 1986. Function of mineral nutrients; Macronutrients, p. 195-267. In: R. J. Haynes (Eds.). Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. Orlando, FL.

Mishra, A. K. & Agarwal, H. P. (1994). Effect of sulphur on growth yield, protein and oil content of soybean. Journal of Oilseeds Research, 11, 99-102.

Matoh, T. (1997). Boron in plant cell walls. Plant and Soil, 193, 59-70. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004207824251

Mei, Y., Lei, S. H., Fang-Sen, X., Jian-wei, L.U., Yun-Hua, W. (2009). Effect of B, Mo, Zn, and Their Interactions on Seed Yield of Rapseed (Brassica napus L.). Pedosphere, 19(1), 53-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(08)60083-1

Nabi, G., Rafique, E., Salim, M. (2006). Boron nutrition of four sweet pepper cultivars grown in boron-deficient soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 29, 717–725. https://doi.org/10.1080/01904160600564543

Neilsen, G. H., Neilsen, D., Hogue, E. J., Herbert, L.C. (2004). Zinc and boron nutrition management in fertigated high density apple orchards. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 84, 823-828. https://doi.org/10.4141/P03-153

Nuttall, W. F., Ukrainetz, H., Stewart, J. W., Spurr, D. T. (1987). The effect of nitrogen, sulphur and boron on yield and qulity of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and Brassica compestris L.). Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 67, 545-559. https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss87-051

Nyborg, M., Bentley, C. F., Hoyt, P. B. (1974). Effect of sulphur deficiency. Sulphur Institute Journal, 10, 14-15.

Pandey, N., Pathak, G. C., Sharma, C. P. (2006). Zinc is critically required for pollen function and fertilization in lentil. Journal of Trace Element in Medicine and Biology, 20, 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2005.09.006

Rathinavel, K., Dharmalingam, C., Paneersel vam, S. (2000). Effect of micronutrient on the productivity and quality of cotton seed cv. TCB 209 (Gossypium barbadense L.). The Madras Agricultural Journal, 86, 313-316.

Ravi, S., Channal, H. T., Hebsur, N. S., Patil, B. N., Dharmatti, P. R. (2008). Effect of sulphur, zinc and iron nutrition on growth, yield, nutrient uptake and quality of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 21(3), 382-385.

Rehem, G. W., Fendter, W. E., Overdahi, C. J. (1998). Boron for Minnesota soils. University of Minnesota Ridley, A. O. (1973). Effect of nitrogen and sulfur fertilizers on yield and quality of rapeseed. Papers presented at the 17th Annual Manitoba Soil Science Meeting, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB. pp. 182-187.

Roe, N. E., Stoffella, P. J., Greatz, D. (1997). Comparison of canola (Brassica campestris L.) and (Brassica napus L.) oilseed rape using different growth regulators plant population densities and irrigation treatments. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 77, 177-187.

Sharma, D. N., Khadar, V. K., Sharma, R. A., Singh, D. (1991). Effect of different doses and sources of sulphur on the quality and yield of mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science, 39, 197-200.

Singh Grewal, H., & Grahma, R. D. (1999). Residual effects of subsoil zinc and oilseed rape genotype on the grain yield and distribution of zinc in wheat. Plant and Soil, 207, 29-36. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004479911399

Singh Grewal, H., Lu, Z. G., Graham, R. D. (1997). Influence of subsoil zinc on dry matter production, seed yield and distribution of zinc in oilseed rape genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. Plant and Soil, 192, 181-189. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004228610138

Singh, S., & Sinha, S. (2005). Accumulation of metals and its effects in (Brassica juncea L.) Czern. (cv. Rohini) grown on various amendments of tannery waste, Ecotoxicolgy and Environmental Safety, 62, 118-127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2004.12.026

Sinha, P., Jain, R., Chatterjee, C. (2000). Interactive effect of boron and zinc on growth and metabolism of mustard commun. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 31, 41-49. https://doi.org/10.1080/00103620009370419

Vitosh, M. L., Warnek, D. D., Lucas, R. E. (1997). Boron. Mishigan State University Extension Soil and Management Fertilizer. Available on the http://www.msue.msu.EDV

Zhang, W. Y. (2001). Critical range of soil boron for prognosis of boron deficiency in oilseed rape. Pedosphere, 11(3), 283-288.



8. 04. 2018



Agronomy section

How to Cite

SHOJA, T., MAJIDIAN, M., & RABIEE, M. (2018). Effects of zinc, boron and sulfur on grain yield, activity of some antioxidant enzymes and fatty acid composition of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 111(1), 73–84. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2018.111.1.08

Similar Articles

1-10 of 388

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.