Genetic diversity within and among two-spotted spider mite resistant and susceptible common bean genotypes


  • Zeinab YOUSEFI Graduate M. Sc. Student, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
  • Zahra TAHMASEBI Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
  • Mohammad Javad Erfani MOGHADAM Dept. of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
  • Ali ARMINIAN Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran



common bean, two-spotted spider mite, resistibility/susceptibility markers, SSR, RAPD


Two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae C. L. Koch, 1836), is one of the most destructive herbivores of common bean. Very little is known about the diversity among resistant sources in this crop. The present study was conducted to characterize 22 resistant and susceptible common bean genotypes by 8 Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) and 8 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. These SSR and RAPD primers produced 100 % and 81.8 % polymorphic bands. Based on RAPD fingerprints and SSR profiles, pairwise genetic similarity ranged from 0.0 to 0.857 and from 0.125 to 1, respectively. The resistant and susceptible common bean accessions were grouped together in the dendrograms generated from RAPD and SSR clustering analyses. The results indicate that RAPD and SSR analysis could be successfully used for the estimation of genetic diversity among genotypes. SSR markers could group genotypes according to their resistibility and susceptibility to the spotted spider mite but RAPD could not. Therefore, the SSR markers can facilitate the development of resistant common bean cultivars through breeding programs against T. urticae.


Ballhorn, D. J. (2011). Constraints of simultaneous resistance to a fungal pathogen and an insect herbivore in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Journal of chemical ecology, 37(2), 141-144. doi:10.1007/s10886-010-9905-0

Beebe, S., Skroch, P. W., Tohme, J., Duque, M. C., Pedraza, F., & Nienhuis, J. (2000). Structure of genetic diversity among common bean landraces of Middle American origin based on correspondence analysis of RAPD. Crop Science, 40(1), 264-273. doi:10.2135/cropsci2000.401264x

Berlinger, M.J. (1986) Pests. In: J.G. Atherton & J. Rudich (Eds), The Tomato Crop: A Scientific Basis for Improvement. London: Chapman and Hall. doi:10.1007/978-94-009-3137-4_10

Bisognin, D. A., & Douches, D. S. (2002a). Early generation selection for potato tuber quality in progenies of late blight resistant parents. Euphytica, 127(1), 1-9. doi:10.1023/A:1019983503697

Bisognin, D. A., & Douches, D. S. (2002b). Genetic diversity in diploid and tetraploid late blight resistant potato germplasm. HortScience, 37(1), 178-183.

Blair, M. W., Giraldo, M. C., Buendia, H. F., Tovar, E., Duque, M. C., & Beebe, S. E. (2006a). Microsatellite marker diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 113(1), 100-109. doi:10.1007/s00122-006-0276-4

Blair, M. W., Muñoz, C., Garza, R., & Cardona, C. (2006b). Molecular mapping of genes for resistance to the bean pod weevil (Apion godmani Wagner) in common bean. Theoretical and applied genetics, 112(5), 913-923. doi:10.1007/s00122-005-0195-9

Blair, M. W., Pedraza, F., Buendia, H. F., Gaitán-Solís, E., Beebe, S. E., Gepts, P., & Tohme, J. (2003). Development of a genome-wide anchored microsatellite map for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 107(8), 1362-1374. doi:10.1007/s00122-003-1398-6

Blair, M. W., Muñoz, C., Buendía, H. F., Flower, J., Bueno, J. M., & Cardona, C. (2010). Genetic mapping of microsatellite markers around the arcelin bruchid resistance locus in common bean. Theoretical and applied genetics, 121(2), 393-402. doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1318-5

Botstein, D., White, R.L., Skolnick, M.H., & Davis, R.W. (1980). Construction of a genetic map in man using restriction fragment length polymorphism. American Journal of Human Genetics,3, 314-331.

Bukhari, A., Bhat, M. A., Ahmad, M., & Saleem, N. (2015). Examination of genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14(6), 451-458. doi:10.5897/AJB2014.14281

Cardoso, P. C. B., Veiga, M. M., Menezes, I. P. P., Valdisser, P. A. M. R., Borba, T. C., Melo, L. C., ... & Vianello, R. P. (2013). Molecular characterization of high performance inbred lines of Brazilian common beans. Genetics and molecular research, 12(4), 5467-5484. doi:10.4238/2013.February.6.4

Cardoso, P. C. B., Brondani, C., Menezes, I. P. P., Valdisser, P. A. M. R., Borba, T. C. O., Del Peloso, M. J., & Vianello, R. P. (2014). Discrimination of common bean cultivars using multiplexed microsatellite markers. Genetics and molecular research, 13(1), 1964-1978. doi:10.4238/2014.March.24.1

De la Cruz, E. P., Gepts, P., GarciaMartin, P. C., & Villareal, D. Z. (2005). Spatial distribution of genetic diversity in wild populations of Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Guanajuato and Michoacán, México. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 52(5), 589-599. doi:10.1007/s10722-004-6125-x

Doyle, J. J. (1987). A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem bull, 19, 11-15.

Edwards O and Singh KB (2006). Resistance to insect pests: What do legumes have to offer? Euphytica; 147, 273-285. doi:10.1007/s10681-006-3608-1

El_Komy, M.H. (2010). Potato resistance and late blight disease. Lap Lambert Academic Publishing.

Gepts, P., & Bliss, F. A. (1986). Phaseolin variability among wild and cultivated bean germplasm. Journal of Heredity, 76, 447-450. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a110142

Khampila, J., Lertrat, K., Saksirirat, W., Sanitchon, J., Muangsan, N., & Theerakulpisut, P. (2008). Identification of RAPD and SCAR markers linked to northern leaf blight resistance in waxy corn (Zea mays var. ceratina). Euphytica, 164(3), 615-625. doi:10.1007/s10681-008-9647-z

Koenig, R., & Gepts, P. (1989). Segregation and linkage of genes for seed proteins, isozymes, and morphological traits in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Heredity, 80(6), 455-456. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jhered.a110897

Maciel, F. L., Echeverrigaray, S., Gerald, L. T. S., & Grazziotin, F. G. (2003). Genetic relationships and diversity among Brazilian cultivars and landraces of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by AFLP markers. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 50(8), 887-893. doi:10.1023/A:1025994513043

Maciel, F. L., Gerald, L. T. S., & Echeverrigaray, S. (1999). Variation in phaseolin and other soluble proteins among cultivars and landraces of common beans of south-Brazil. Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 53, 149-154.

Nei, M. (1973). Analysis of genetic diversity in subdivided population. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 70, 3321-3323. doi:10.1073/pnas.70.12.3321

Pattanayak, D., Chakrabarti, S.K. & Naik, P.S. (2002) Genetic diversity of late blight resistant and susceptible Indian potato cultivars revealed by RAPD markers. Euphytica 128(2):183-189. doi:10.1023/A:1020861225738

Perseguini, J. M. K. C., Chioratto, A. F., Zucchi, M. I., Colombo, C. A., Carbonell, S. A. M., Mondego, J. M. C., ... & Rubiano, L. B. (2011). Genetic diversity in cultivated carioca common beans based on molecular marker analysis. Genetics and molecular biology, 34(1), 88-102. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572011000100017

Pickersgill, B., & Debouck, D. G. (2005). Domestication patterns in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the origin of the Mesoamerican and Andean cultivated races. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 110(3), 432-444 doi:10.1007/s00122-004-1842-2

Rohlf, F.J. (2000). NTSYS-pc: numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system, version 2.1. New York: Exeter Software.

Santalla, M., Menéndez-Sevillano, M. C., Monteagudo, A. B., & De Ron, A. M. (2004). Genetic diversity of Argentinean common bean and its evolution during domestication. Euphytica, 135(1), 75-87. doi:10.1023/B:EUPH.0000009543.46471.72

Sicard, D., Nanni, L., Porfiri, O., Bulfon, D., & Papa, R. (2005). Genetic diversity of Phaseolus vulgaris L. and P. coccineus L. landraces in central Italy. Plant Breeding, 124(5), 464-472. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0523.2005.01137.x

Silva, G. F. D., Santos, J. B. D., & Ramalho, M. A. P. (2003). Identification of SSR and RAPD markers linked to a resistance allele for angular leaf spot in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) line ESAL 550. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 26(4), 459-463. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572003000400009

Smith, J.S.C., Chin, E.C.L., Shu, H., Smith, O.S., ... & Wall, S.J. (1997). An evaluation of the utility of SSR loci as molecular markers in maize (Zea mays L.): comparisons with data from RFLPs and pedigree. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95,163-173. doi:10.1007/s001220050544

Solano, J. P. L. (2005). Patterns of phaseolins and RAPD analysis in domesticated species of Phaseolus. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana, 28, 195-202.

Tahmasebi, Z., Mohammadi, H., Arimura, G. I., Muroi, A., & Kant, M. R. (2014). Herbivore-induced indirect defense across bean cultivars is independent of their degree of direct resistance. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 63(2), 217-239. doi:10.1007/s10493-014-9770-6

Tahmasebi, Z., Hossein Zadeh, A. H., Bihamta, M.R., Naghavi, M.R., Saboori, A., Dorri, H.R. & Koshki, M. S. (2011). An investigation on resistance of 19 common bean genotypes to two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), in three regions of Iran. Journal of Entomological Society of Iran, 30, 69-78.

Tanyolac, M.B. (2013). SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and SSR (Simple Sequences Repeat) Variation in Common Bean. In Plant and Animal Genome XXI Conference. Plant and Animal Genome.

Tomar, J., Saini, N., Goyal, B. S., Tripathi, N., Shrivastava, A. N., Verma, R. K., & Tiwari, S. (2011). Assessment of genetic diversity among rhizoctonia root rot resistant soybean genotypes. Journal of Food Legumes, 24(4), 267-272.

Veloso, J. S., Silva, W., Pinheiro, L. R., Dos Santos, J. B., Fonseca Jr, N. S., & Euzebio, M. P. (2015). Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars. Genetics and molecular research, 14(3), 11281-11291. doi:10.4238/2015.September.22.22

Wang, A., Ding, Y., Hu, Z., Lin, C., Wang, S., Wang, B., ... & Zhou, G. (2012). Isolation and Characterization of 13 New Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers in the Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Common Bean) Genome. International journal of molecular sciences, 13(9), 11188-11193. doi:10.3390/ijms130911188

Wani, A. B., Bhat, M. A., Husaini, A. M., & Sidiqi, I. (2017). Screening of important bean genotypes/collections for resistance against Common Bean Mosaic Virus using molecular markers. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 6(4), 343-347.

Weir, B.S. (1990). Genetic data analysis: Methods for discrete population genetic data (Sinauer Associates, Inc, Sunderland, MA.

Yu, K., Park, S. J., & Poysa, V. (2000a). Marker‐assisted selection of common beans for resistance to common bacterial blight: efficacy and economics. Plant breeding, 119(5), 411-415. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0523.2000.00514.x

Yu, K., Park, S. J., Poysa, V., & Gepts, P. (2000b). Integration of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers into a molecular linkage map of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Heredity, 91(6), 429-434. doi:10.1093/jhered/91.6.429

Zargar, S. M., Farhat, S., Mahajan, R., Bhakhri, A., & Sharma, A. (2016). Unraveling the efficiency of RAPD and SSR markers in diversity analysis and population structure estimation in common bean. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 23(1), 139-149. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.11.011



18. 12. 2017



Agronomy section

How to Cite

YOUSEFI, Z., TAHMASEBI, Z., MOGHADAM, M. J. E., & ARMINIAN, A. (2017). Genetic diversity within and among two-spotted spider mite resistant and susceptible common bean genotypes. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 109(3), 517–528.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 204

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)