Pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus indicus Siddiqi, 1963 on papaya and impact of some bio-organic materials


  • Shimaa F. DIAB Cairo University, Faculty of Agriculture, Zoology and Agricultural Nematology Department, Giza 12613, Egypt
  • Ahlam M. EL-GHONIMY Nematology Unit, Plant Protection Department, Desert Research Center, Cairo 11753, Egypt
  • Hosny Hamed KESBA Zoology and Agricultural Nematology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.



papaya, Helicotylenchus, population density, inoculum level, control


Two pot experiments were conducted to determine the growth response of papaya, ‘Solo’ and H. indicus reproduction in relation to different levels of nematode inocula (0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 12000 nematode/pot) and impact of some commercial products, e.g. Bio Tonic®, Hundz Soil®, Nemakey-N™, Nemastop® and Nubtea® on nematode management, plant growth and NPK contents. As increase nematode density to 4000 and up to 12000 nematode/pot, significant reductions in plant length, fresh or dry mass were detected. The highest reduction in plant growth was achieved by density of 12000 nematode/pot. Most inoculation levels reduced plant contents of N and K regardless to nematode density. Tremendous increase in plant content of P was obtained by 4000 and 12000 nematode/pot. The nematode build up was decreased by increasing the nematode density. All treatments significantly improved the plant criteria. Significant increase of shoot parameters was obvious in Nubtea® treatment. Nemastop® had less value of shoot parameters. Negative response was recorded in P content in all treatments. There were no significant differences among treatments in plant content of N except Nubtea® treatment. The least value of K was found in Nemastop® treatment. The Nemakey-N™ overwhelmed all treatments in reducing all nematode criteria.

Author Biography

  • Hosny Hamed KESBA, Zoology and Agricultural Nematology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.
    Zoology and Agricultural Nematology Department


Abo-Elyousr, K.A., Khan, Z., El-Morsi, A.M. and Abedel-Moneim, M.F. (2010). Evaluation of plant extracts and Pseudomonas spp. for control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Nematropica, 40(2), 289-299.

Ahmad, F. and Siddiqui, M.D. (2009). Management of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in tomato. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 27(2), 369-373.

Al-Sayed, A.A., Abdel-Rahman, A.A. and Kesba, H.H. (2016). Ring and spiral nematodes reproduction and Turfgrass growth as influenced by heavy metals treatments. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 24(2), 411-417.

Al-Sayed, A.A., Kheir, A.M., El-Naggar, H.I. and Kesba, H.H. (2007). Organic management of Meloidogyne incognita on grapes in relation to host biochemistry. International Journal of Agricultural Research, 2(9), 776-785.

Anon. (1990). Official methods of analysis. 15th edition. Washington, DC, USA, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 684 pp.

Farahat, A.A., Al-Sayed, A.A. and Mahfoud, N.A. (2010). Compost and other organic and inorganic fertilizers in the scope of the root-knot nematode reproduction and control of Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 9(1), 18-29.

Farahat, A.A., Al-Sayed, A.A.; El-Beltagi, H.S. and Mahfoud, N.A. (2012). Impact of organic and inorganic fertilizers on nematode reproduction and biochemical alterations on tomato. Notulae Scientia Biologicae, 4(1), 48-55.

Firoza, K. and Maqbool, M.A. (1995). Numerical threshold for infection of the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961 on Brinjal, tomato and wheat. Pakstan Journal of Nematology, 13(2), 93-97.

Hooper, D.J., Hallmann, J. and Subbotin, S.A. (2005). Methods for extraction, processing and detection of plant and soil nematodes. In: Luc, M., Sikora, R.A. and Bridge, J. (Eds). Plant parasitic nematodes in subtropical and tropical agriculture. Wallingford, UK, CABI Publishing, pp. 53-86.

Jain, R.K. (1981). Pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus dihystera to Cenchrus ciliaris. Indian Journal of Nematology, 10(2), 236-239.

Kesba, H.H. (2010). Biochemical alterations in grape infected with three phytonematode species with emphasis on root-knot nematode control. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 9(2), 116-131.

Kesba, H.H. (2011). Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and impact of some control measures. International Journal of Nematology, 21(2), 203-209.

Kesba, H.H. and Al-Sayed, A.A. (2005). Interactions of three species of plant-parasitic nematodes with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus macrocarpus, and their effect on grape biochemistry. Nematology, 7(6), 945-952.

Kesba, H.H., Al-Sayed, A.A. and Farahat, A.A. (2012). Controlling Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis infecting papaya. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 11(2), 354-371.

Kesba, H.H., Al-Shalaby, Mona, E. (2008). Survival and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato as affected by humic acid. Nematology, 10(2), 243-249.

Kesba, H.H., El-Helaly, M.A., Abdel Ghanny, S. and Suloma, A. (2013). Potentials of aquaculture effluents on nematode management: 1- effect of tilapia effluents on two nematode species and cowpea growth. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 23(1), 281-289.

Khan, A., Sayed, M. and Shaukat, S.S. (2007). Nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh (Pakistan). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 23(1), 145-147.

Khanna, A.S. and Jyot, J. (2002). Pathogenic potential of Helicotylenchus variuudatus and Paratylenchus curwtatus on Dunthus caryophillus. Nematologia Mediterranea, 30, 201-202.

Kheir, A.M., Al-Sayed, A.A. and Saeed, M.R. (2009). Suppressive effects of inorganic fertilizers on M. incognita infecting soybean. Egyptian Journal of Agronematology, 7(1), 9-19.

Kumar, D. and Singh, V.S. (2007). Pathogenicity of spiral nematode, H. indicus and effect of chlorophyll content of maize. Indian Journal of Nematology, 37, 101-102.

MALR (2014). Bulletin of economic affairs sector, Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt.

Marais, M. (2001). A monograph of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nemata: Hoplolaimidae). Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

McConnell, J.S., Baker, W.H., Miller, D.M., Frizzell, B.S. and Varvil, J.J. (1993). Nitrogen fertilization of cotton cultivars of differing maturity. Agronomy Journal, 85, 1151-1156.

McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R.N. (1995). Effectof yard waste compost on plant-parasitic nematode densities in vegetable crops. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology, 27(4S), 545-549.

McSorley, R. and Gallaher, R.N. (1996). Effect of yard waste compost on nematode densities and maize yield. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology, 28(4S), 655-660.

Moens, T., Araya, M., Swennen, R. and De Waele, D. (2006). Reproduction and pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus multicinctus, Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus coffeae, and their interaction with Radopholus similis on Musa. Nematology, 8, 45-58.

MSTAT Version 4 (1987). Software program for the design and analysis of agronomic research experiments. Michigan, USA, Michigan State University.

Oteifa, B.A. and El-Gindi, D.M. (1962). Influence of parasitic duration of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub) on host nutrient uptake. Nematologica, 8, 216-220.

Rao, V.R. and Swarup, G. (1974). Pathogenicity of spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera to sugarcane. Indian Journal of Nematology, 4,160-166.

Rashad, F.M., Kesba, H.H., Saleh, W.D. and Moselhy, M.M. (2011). Impact of rice straw composts on microbial population, plant growth, nutrient uptake and root-knot nematode under greenhouse conditions. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(5), 1188-1203.

Rashid, A. and Azad, S. A. (2013). Studies on the pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus dihystera on Celosia cristata. Indian Journal of Scientific Research, 4(1), 153-154.

Roy, T.K. (1981). Biochemical aspects of host-parasite relationships in plant parasitic nematodes. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 47(6), 919-936.

Sartaj, A., Tiyagi, N.V. and Alam, M.M. (1999). Inoculum potential of spiral nematodes, Helicotylenchus indicus in relation to growth of chickpea. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7,212-251.

Schreck Reis, C., Freitas, H. and van der Putten, W.H. (2008). Responses of root-feeding nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.) to local and non-local populations of the host plant Ammophila arenaria. Applied Soil Ecology, 39, 245–253.

Shafiee, M.F. and Jenkins, W.R. (1963). Host-parasitic of Capsicum frutescens and Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne incognita acrita and Meloidogyne hapla. Phytopathology, 53, 325-328.

Shankar, T.; Pavaraj, M.; Umamaheswari, K.; Prabhu, D. and Baskaran, S. (2011). Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the root-knot nematode, Meladogyne incognita infecting tomato, Lycoperiscum esculentum. Academic Journal of Entomology, 4(3), 114-117.

Siddiqi, M.R. (1963). Two new species of the genus, Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaiminae). Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde, 23, 239-244.

Siddiqui, Z.A., Qureshi, A. and Akhtar, M.S. (2009). Biocontrol of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita by Pseudomonas and Bacillus isolates on Pisum sativum. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 42(12), 1154-1164.

Singh, B. and Chaudhury, B. (1974). Screening tomato cultivars for resistance to Meloidogyne species. Tropical Pest Management, 20, 319-322.

Sinha, A.K. and Neog, P.P. (2003). Effect of different levels of NPK fertilizers against citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) on Khasi mandarin. Indian Journal of Nematology, 33, 61- 62.

Tayal, M.S. and Agrawal, M.L. (1982). Biochemical alterations in galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita: some hydrolyzing enzymes and related chemical metabolites. Indian Journal of Nematology, 12, 379-382.

Teixeira da Silva, J.A., Rashid, Z., Nhut, D.T., Sivakumar, D., Gera, A., Souza Jr., M.T. and Tennant, P.F. (2007). Papaya (Carica papaya L.) biology and biotechnology. Tree and Forestry Science and Biotechnology, 1(1), 47-73.

Uzma, I., Nasira, K., Firoza, K. and Shahina, F. (2015). Review of the genus Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) with updated diagnostic compendium. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 33(2), 115-160.

Willers, P. and Grech, N.M. (1986). Pathogenicity of the spiral nematode, Helicotylenchus dihystera to Guava. Plant Disease, 70,352.

Zahid, M.I., Gurr, G.M., Hodda, M., Nikandrow, A. and Fulkerson, W.J. (2002). Orientation, reproduction and effect of spiral nematode (Helicotylenchus dihystera) on growth of white clover (cv. Haifa). Australasian Plant Pathology, 31(1), 55-56.

Zhang, S. and Zhang, X. (2009). Effects of two composted plant pesticide residues incorporated with Trichoderma viride on root-knot nematode in ballon flower. Agricultural Sciences in China, 8, 447-454.



29. 07. 2019



Agronomy section

How to Cite

DIAB, S. F., EL-GHONIMY, A. M., & KESBA, H. H. (2019). Pathogenicity of Helicotylenchus indicus Siddiqi, 1963 on papaya and impact of some bio-organic materials. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 113(2), 273–279.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 509

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.