Yield and quality of two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) cultivars are influenced by foliar application of salicylic acid, irrigation timing, and planting density


  • Khaled A.A. ABDELAAL EPCRS Excellence Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture and Botany, Kafrelsheikh University, Egypt
  • Sahar H. RASHED Soil, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza, Egypt
  • Akbar HOSSAIN Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
  • Ayman EL Sabagh assist.prof., Egypt




planting density, sugar quality, salicylic acid, sugar beet, irrigation timing, yield


Two field experiments were conducted to evaluate the time of foliar application of 100 ppm salicylic acid (SA), two irrigation (IR) timings, three levels of spacing (SP) hill-1 with different plant density on growth, yield and quality characters of two sugar beet cultivars (‘Samba’ and ‘Farida’). The results revealed that the foliar application of 100 ppm SA at 30 days after planting (DAP) and 14 days after the first application significantly influenced top fresh mass and root biomass of sugar beet plants. Conversely, the increasing period between planting and first irrigation scheduling led to significant differences in fresh mass, sugar yield, and sucrose % as well as purity % of sugar beet. Plants density with 60 × 20 cm spacing hill-1 was found to be better than the other two spacings for major characters, particularly root fresh mass, and Total soluble solids and purity %. Inversely, spacing at 60 × 15 cm, between hills gave the maximum levels of top fresh mass, root yield and sugar yield in the first season. The interaction effect between spacing hill-1 at 60 × 20 cm and 100 ppm SA applied at 30 DAP gave the maximum levels of increment for most of the studied characters, particularly for cultivar ‘Farida’.


Abdelaal, Kh.A.A. (2015a). Pivotal Role of Bio and Mineral Fertilizer Combinations on Morphological, Anatomical and Yield Characters of Sugar Beet Plant (Beta vulgaris L.). Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research, 4(4), 717-734.

Abdelaal, Kh.A.A., & Tawfik Sahar, F. (2015). Response of Sugar Beet Plant (Beta vulgaris L.) to Mineral Nitrogen Fertilization and Bio-Fertilizers. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(9), 677-688.

Abdelaal, Kh.A.A., (2015b). Effect of Salicylic acid and Abscisic acid on morpho-physiological and anatomical characters of faba bean plants (Vicia faba L.) under drought stress. Journal of Plant Production, Mansoura University, 6, 1771-1788. https://doi.org/10.21608/jpp.2015.52096

Abdelaal, Kh.A.A., Hafez, Y.M., EL Sabagh, A., & Saneoka, H. (2017). Ameliorative effects of Abscisic acid and yeast on morpho-physiological and yield characteristics of maize plant (Zea mays L.) under water deficit conditions. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26(12), 7372-7383.

Abido, W.A.E., Ibrahim, M.E.M., & El-Zeny, M.M. (2015). Growth, Productivity and Quality of Sugar Beet as Affected by Antioxidants Foliar Application and Potassium Fertilizer Top Dressing. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 7(2), 113-127. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajcs.2015.113.127

Awad, N.M.M., Gharib, H.S., & (2013). Response of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) to Potassium and Sulphur Supply in Clayed Soil at North Delta, Egypt. Egyptian Jounal of Agronomy, 35(1), 77-91. https://doi.org/10.21608/agro.2013.94

Awad, N. M.M., Abdeldaiem, A., & Moustafa, S.M. (2014). Evaluation of six sugar beet varieties under three harvesting dates. Minufiya Journal of Agricultural Research, 391(1), 121-130.

Awad, N.M.M., Sahar, Tawfik, F., & Moustafa, S.M. (2012). Effect of plowing depth, sowing method and nitrogen fertilization on yield and quality of sugar beet. Journal of Agricultural Research Kafr-Elsheikh University,38(4), 458-470.

Azooz, M.M., Youssef, M.A., & Parvaiz, A. (2011). Evaluation of salicylic acid (SA) application on growth, osmotic solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities on broad bean seedlings grown under diluted seawater. International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 3(14), 253-264. https://doi.org/10.5897/IJPPB11.052

Bhullar, M.S., Uppal, S.K., & Kapur, M.L. (2010). Influence of planting density and nitrogen dose on root and sugar yield of beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under sub-tropical semi-arid conditions of Punjab. Journal of Research Punjab Agricultural University, 47, 14-17.

Brar, N.S., Dhillon, B.S., Saini, K.S., & Sharma, P.K. (2015). Agronomy of sugarbeet cultivation-A review. Agricultural Reviews, 36(3), 184-197. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-0741.2015.00022.7

Du, Y.C., Nose, A., Wasano, K., & Ushida, Y. (1998). Responses to water stress of enzyme activities and metabolite levels in relation to sucrose and starch synthesis, the Calvin cycle and the C4 pathway in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) leaves. Australian Journal Plant Physiology, 25, 253–60. https://doi.org/10.1071/PP97015

Dutton, J.V., Carruthers, A., & Oldfield, J.F.T., (1961). The synthesis of sucrose by extracts of the root of the sugar beet. Biochemical Journal, 81(2), 266-272. https://doi.org/10.1042/bj0810266

EL Sabagh, A., Hossain, A., Barutçular, C., Islam M.S., Ratnasekera, D., Kumar, N., Meena, R.S., Gharib, H.S., Saneoka, H., & Teixeira da Silva, J.A. (2019a). Drought and salinity stress management for higher and sustainable canola (Brassica napus L.) production: a critical review. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 13(01), 88-97.

EL Sabagh, A., Hossain, A., Islam, MS., Barutçular, C., Ratnasekera, D., Kumar, N., Meena, R.S. Gharib, H.S., Saneoka, H., & Teixeira da Silva, J.A. (2019b). Salinity stress management for sustainable soybean production using foliar application of compatible antioxidants and soil application of organic fertilizers: a critical review. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 13(02), 228-236.

EL Sabagh, A., Hossain, A., Barutçular, C., Gormus, O., Ahmad, Z., Hussain, S., Islam, M. S., Alharby, H., Bamagoos, A., Kumar, N., Akdeniz, A., Fahad, S., Meena, R. S., Abdelhamid, M., Wasaya, A., Hasanuzzaman, M., Sorour, S., & Saneoka, H. (2019c). Effects of drought stress on the quality of major oilseed crops: implications and possible mitigation strategies – A Review. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 17(2), 4019-4043. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_40194043

EL Sabagh, A., Hossain A., Islam M.S., Barutcular C., Hussain S., Hasanuzzaman, M., Akram, T., Mubeen, M., Nasim, W., Fahad, S., Kumar, N., Meena, R.S., Kızılgeçi, F., Yıldırım, M., Ratnasekera, D., & Saneoka, H. (2019d). Drought and salinity stresses in barley: Consequences and mitigation strategies. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 13(06), 810-820. https://doi.org/10.21475/ajcs.19.13.06.p1286

EL Sabagh, A., Hossain, A., Barutçular, C., Islam, M. S., Awan, S. I., Galal, A., Iqbal, M. A., Sytar, O., Yildirim, M., Meena, R. S., Fahad, S., Najeeb, U., Konuskan, O., Habib, R. A., Llanes, A., Hussain, S., Farooq, M., Hasanuzzaman, M., Abdelaal, K. H., Hafez, Y.,Cig, F., & Saneoka, H. (2019e). Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Production Under Drought And Heat Stress – Adverse Effects, Mechanisms And Mitigation: A Review. Applied Ecology And Environmental Research, 17(4), 8307-8332.

FAOSTAT. (2016). The data set “Sugar beet, production quantity (tons)” for Egypt contains data from the year 1961 until 2016. http://www.factfish.com/statistic-country/egypt/sugar+beet,+production.

Ghoulam, C., Ahmed, F., & Khalid, F. (2001). Effects of salt stress on growth, inorganic ions and proline accumulation in relation to osmotic adjustment in five sugar beet cultivars. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 47, 139–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0098-8472(01)00109-5

Gong, H.J., Zhu, X.Y., Chen, K.M., Wang, S.M., & Zhang, C.L. (2005). Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Science, 169, 313–321. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.02.023

Jain, M., Tiwary, S., & Gadre, R. (2010). Sorbitol-induced changes in various growth and biochemical parameters in maize. Plant, Soil and Environment 56, 263-267. https://doi.org/10.17221/233/2009-PSE

Kang, G.Z., Li, G.Z., Liu, G.Q., Xu, W., Peng, X.Q., Wang, C.Y., Zhu, Y.J., & Guo, T.C. (2013). Exogenous salicylic acid enhances wheat drought tolerance by influence on the expression of genes related to the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Biologia Plantarum, 57(4), 718-724. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10535-013-0335-z

Khodary, S.E. (2004). Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in salt stressed maize plants. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 1, 5-8.

Le Docte, A. (1927). Commercial determination of sugar in beet root using the Sacks Le Docte. International Sugar Journal, 29, 488-492.

Merwad, A.M.A. (2015). Effect of Potassium Fertilisation and Salicylic Acid on Yield, Quality and Nutrient Uptake of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Grown in Saline Soil. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, 19, 95-105.

Mishra, M., & Prakash, V. (2013). Impact of foliar application of salicylic acid on growth and lipid peroxidation in water stress tolerance of Glycine max (L.) Merrill. International Journal of Bioassays, 3(01), 1721-1728.

Molla, S.H., Nakasathien, S., Ali, A., Khan, A., Alam, R., Hossain, A., Farooq, M., & EL Sabagh, A. (2019). Influence of nitrogen application on dry biomass allocation and translocation in two maize varieties under short pre-anthesis and prolonged bracketing flowering periods of drought. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65(7), 928-944. https://doi.org/10.1080/03650340.2018.1538557

Moosavi, S.G. (2012). The effect of water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer levels on morphology traits, yield and leaf area index in maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44, 1351-1355.

O’Mahony M, 1986. Sensory Evaluation of Food: Statistical Methods and Procedures. CRC Press. pp 487.

Nafei, A.I., Osman, A.M.H., & Maha M. El. Zeny (2010). Effect of plant densities and potassium fertilization rates on yield and quality of sugar beet crop in sandy reclaimed soils. Journal of Plant Production, Mansoura University, 1(2), 229-237.

Neseim, M.R, Amin, A.Y., & El-Mohammady, M.M.S. (2014). Effect of potassium applied with foliar spray of yeast on sugar beet growth and yield under drought stress. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science, 3(8), 211-222.

Noreen, S., Fatima, K., Athar, H.U.R., Ahmad, S., & Hussain, K. (2017a). Enhancement of physio-biochemical parameters of wheat through exogenous application of salicylic acid under drought stress. Journal of Animal and Plant Science, 27(1), 153-163.

Noreen, S., Siddiq, A., Hussain, K., Ahmad, S., & Hasanuzzaman, M. (2017b). Foliar application of salicylic acid with salinity stress on physiological and biochemical attributes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) crop. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum-Hortorum Cultus, 16(2), 57-74.

Noreen, S., Ashraf, M., Hiussain M., & Amer, A.J. (2009). Exogenous application of salycilic acid enhances antioxidative capacity in salt stressed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 41, 473-479.

Omar, A.M., Hamed, O.M.A., Abolela, M.F.KH.A., Islam, M.S., & EL Sabagh,A. (2019a.) Bio-nitrogen Fertilization and Leaf Defoliation Increased Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences, 12, 29-36. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajaps.2019.29.36

Omar, A.M., El-Menshawy, M., El-Okkiah, S.A., & EL Sabbagh, A. (2019b). Foliar Application of Osmoprotectants Stimulate Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) to Survive under Late Sown Stress Condition. Open Agriculture, 3(1), 684–697. https://doi.org/10.1515/opag-2018-0072

Ramadan, B.S.H. (1999). Effect of period between last irrigation and harvest date on yield and quality of some sugar beet varieties (Beta vulgaris L.). Egyptian Journal of Applied Science, 14(10), 82-95.

Ramazan, C. (2002). Root yield and quality of sugarbeet in relation to sowing date, plant population and harvesting date interactions. Turkish Journal Agriculture, 26, 133-39.

Saneoka, H., Moghaieb, R.E.A., Premachandra, G.S., & Fujita, K. (2004). Nitrogen nutrition and water stress effects on cell membrane stability and leaf water relations in Agrostis palustris Huds. Environmental Experimental Botany, 52, 131–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2004.01.011

Seadh, S.E., Attia, A.N., Said, E.M., El-Maghraby, S.S., & Ibrahim, M.E.M. (2013). Productivity and quality of sugar beet as affecting by sowing methods, weed control treatments and Nitrogen fertilizer levels. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16(15), 711-717. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2013.711.719

Shalaby, N.M.E., Osman, A.M.H., & EL-Labbody, A.H.S.A. (2011). Relative performance of some sugar beet varieties under three plant densities in newly reclaimed soil. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 89(1), 291-299.

Sohrabi, Y., & Heidari, G. (2008). Influence of withholding irrigation and harvest times on yield and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10(4), 427-431

Todaka, D., Nakashima, K., Shinozaki, K., & Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. (2012). Toward understanding transcriptional regulatory networks in abiotic stress responses and tolerance in rice. Rice, 5(6), 2-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1939-8433-5-6

Yassin, M., EL Sabagh, A., Mekawy, A.M.M., Islam, M.S., Hossain, A., Barutcular, C., Alharby, H., Bamagoos, A., Liu, L., Ueda, A., & Saneoka, H. (2019). Comparative performance of two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes Under Salinity Stress. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 17(2), 5029–041. https://doi.org/10.15666/aeer/1702_50295041

Zhou, X.M., Mackeuzie, A.F., Madramootoo, C.A., & Smith, D.L.J. (1999). Effects of some injected plant growth regulators, with or without sucrose, on grain production, biomass and photosynthetic activity of field–grown corn plants. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 183, 103–110. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-037x.1999.00331.x



13. 06. 2020



Agronomy section

How to Cite

ABDELAAL, K. A., RASHED, S. H., HOSSAIN, A., & EL Sabagh, A. (2020). Yield and quality of two sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Döll) cultivars are influenced by foliar application of salicylic acid, irrigation timing, and planting density. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 115(2), 273–282. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2020.115.2.1159

Similar Articles

1-10 of 591

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)