Analysis of energy balance and global warming potential in tangerine (Citrus tangerina Tanaka) orchards versus soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production system


  • Seyed Saeed HOSSEINI Plant Production Department, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
  • Hassan FEIZI University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
  • Hamed KAVEH Plant Production Department, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran
  • Hossein SAHABI Plant Production Department, University of Torbat Heydarieh, Iran



tangerine, soybean, energy use efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions


With the aim of evaluation and comparison of the greenhouse gas emissions from soybean and tangerine production in Golestan province, Iran, a pilot experiment was carried out. In this experiment, 43 fields of soybeans and 43 orchard tangerines were selected by various management in the province using questionnaires. The greenhouse gas emissions were examined using the Global Warming Potential (GWP). The results of this study showed that fossil fuel was the highest energy consumption in the production of soybeans (6906.5 MJ ha-1) and tangerines (17205.1 MJ ha-1). The lowest amount of energy consumption among inputs was related to micro fertilizers, that was 9 MJ ha-1 for soybeans and 17.6 MJ ha-1 for tangerine. In both of production system, the most energy consumed was shown for the harvesting sector. Irrigation and planting were the highest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions in soybean field by 387.7 and 109.4 kg CO2 ha-1, respectively; while in the tangerine production, the most greenhouse gas emissions were related to irrigation and harvesting process by 5828.4 and 394.7 kg CO2 ha-1. In general, input energy in soybean and tangerine were 17512.8 and 33879.8 MJ ha-1, total output energy was calculated 48310.5 and 105463 MJ ha-1. Finally, the energy use efficiency was computed for soybean and tangerine 2.9 and 3.3, respectively.


Akcaoz H., Ozcatalbas O., Kizilay H. (2009). Analysis of energy use for pomegranate production in Turkey. Journal of Food Agriculture Environment, 7, 475-480.

Alluvione F., Moretti B., Sacco D., Grignani C. (2011). EUE (energy use efficiency) of cropping systems for a sustainable agriculture. Energy, 36, 4468-4481.

Aydın B., Aktürk D., Ozkan E., Hurma H., Kiracı M. A. (2018). Comparative energy use efficiency and economic analysis of apple production in Turkey: Case of Thrace Region. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 61, 39-45.

Barut Z. B., Ertekin C., Karaagac H.A. (2011). Tillage effects on energy use for corn silage in Mediterranean Coastal of Turkey. Energy, 36, 5466-5475.

Dalgaard T. (2000). Farm types—how can they be used to structure, model and generalize farm data? In: Agricultural Data for Life Cycle Assessments. Weidema B.P, Meeusen M.J.G. (Eds.), Report 2.00.01. Agricultural Economics Research Institute, The Hague, The Netherlands, 98–114.

Dehshiri A., Aghaalikhani M. (2012). Input-output and economic analysis of soybean production in the main cultivation areas in Iran. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7, 4894-4899.

Dvoskin D., Nicol K., Heady E.O. (1976). Irrigation energy requirements in the 17 western states. In: Agriculture and energy. Lockeretz W. (Eds.). New York: Academic: 103– 112.

Dyer J.A., Desjardins R.L. (2003). The impact of farm machinery management on greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture, 20, 59–74.

Filipovic D., Kosutić S., Gospodarić Z., Zimmer R., Banaj D. (2006). The possibilities of fuel savings and the reduction of CO2 emissions in the soil tillage in Croatia. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, 115, 290–294.

Ghorbani R., Mondani F., Amirmoradi S., Feizi H., Khorramdel S., Teimouri M., Sanjani S., Anvarkhah S., Aghel H. (2011). A case study of energy use and economical analysis of irrigated and dryland wheat production systems. Applied Energy, 88, 283-288.

Green M. (1987). Energy in pesticide manufacture, distribution and use. In: Energy in plant nutrition and pest control, Helsel Z.R., (Eds.). Amsterdam: Elsevier, 165-177.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2007).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change WGI, Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Summary for Policymakers. IPCC Secretariat, c/o WMO, 7bis, Avenue de la Paix, C.P.N. 2300, 1211 Geneva 2, Switzerland.

Kaltsas A. M., Mamolos A. P., Tsatsarelis C. A., Nanos G.D., Kalburtji K.L. (2007). Energy budget in organic and conventional olive groves. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment, 122, 243-251.

Kitani O. (1999). CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering. Energy and Biomass Engineering, ASAE publication.

Lal R. (2004). Carbon emission from farm operations. Environment International, 30, 981- 990.

Mari G. R., Changying J. (2007). Energy analysis of various tillage and fertilizer treatments on corn production. Journal of Agricultural Environment Science, 2, 486-497.

Ministry of Agriculture. (2018). Iran annual agricultural statistics. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture of Iran.

Ministry of Petrolium. (2007). Country hydrocarbon balance sheet. Ministry of Oil. Iran. (In Persian)

Mousavi Avval S. H., Rafiee S., Jafari A., Mohammadi A. (2011). Improving energy productivity of sunflower production using data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. Journal of Science Food Agriculture, 91, 1885-1892.

Newbold P. (1994). Statistics for Business and Economics. Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Ozkan B., Akcaoz H., Fert C. (2004). Energy input –output analysis in Turkish agriculture. Renewable Energy, 29, 39-51.

Ozalp A., Yilmaz S., Ertekin C., Yilmaz I. (2018). Energy Analysis and emissions of greenhouse gases of pomegranate production in Antalya Province of Turkey. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 60, 321–329.

Pimental D., Pimental M. (1996). Food, Energy and Society. Boulder, CO: Colorado University Press.

Rajabi M. H., Soltani A., Zeinali E., Soltani E. (2012). Evaluation of greenhouse gas emission and global warming potential in wheat production in Gorgan, Iran. Electronical Journal Crop Production, 5(3), 23-44.

Sahabi H., Feizi H., Amirmoradi S. (2013). Which crop production system is more efficient in energy use: wheat or barley? Environment Development Sustainability, 15, 711–721.

Singh S., Mittal J. P., Verma S. R. (1997). Energy requirements for production of major crops in India. Agricultural mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 28, 7–13.

Tabatabaeefar A., Emamzadeh H., GhasemiVarnamkhasti M., Rahimizadeh R., Karimi M., (2009). Comparison of energy of tillage systems in wheat production. Energy, 34, 41–45.

Taylor E. B., O’Callaghan P. W., Probert S. D. (1993). Energy audit of an English farm. Applied Energy, 44, 315–35.

Tzilivakis J., Warner D.J., May M., Lewis K. A., Jaggard K. (2005). An assessment of the energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production in the UK. Agricultural Systems, 85(2), 101–119.

West T. O., Marland G. (2002). A synthesis of carbon sequestration, carbon emissions, and net carbon flux in agriculture: comparing tillage practices in the United States. Agriculture Ecosystem Environment, 91, 217-232.

Yilmaz H., Aydin B. (2019). Comparative input-output energy analysis of citrus production in Turkey: Case of Adana province. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 62, 29–36.



14. 07. 2021



Original Scientific Article

How to Cite

HOSSEINI, S. S., FEIZI, H., KAVEH, H., & SAHABI, H. (2021). Analysis of energy balance and global warming potential in tangerine (Citrus tangerina Tanaka) orchards versus soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production system. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 117(2), 1–11.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 251

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.