The possible use of scarce soluble materials as a source of phosphorus in Vicia faba L. grown in calcareous soils


  • Abd-Elmonem Mohamed ELGALA Professor at Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt
  • Shaimaa Hassan ABD-ELRAHMAN Associate Professor at Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt



phosphorus sources, basic slag, organic substances, chelating substances, P availability, P dissolving bacteria, calcareous soils, Vicia faba


Phosphorus (P) is affected by many factors that minimize its solubility especially in calcareous soils. The aim of this work was to conduct laboratory and greenhouse experiments to study the effect of using P solubilizing substances, i.e., compost, humic acid (HA), citric acid and ethylene di-amine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), and rhizobacteria, Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum on solubilizing P from different sources, ordinary superphosphate (OSP), rock phosphate (RP) and basic slag (BS). The effect of these treatments on the P- availability in El-Nubaria calcareous soil and P- uptake by faba bean (Vicia faba ‘Giza 843’) were studied. Obtained results showed that the solubility of P sources differs in their ability to release soluble P in the following order: OSP > RP > BS. The following descending order was appeared of available P in soil with addition of solubilizing agents: citric acid > EDTA > HA > compost for these sources of P, for both experiments. Regarding the interaction between solubilizing agents, the treatments of HA combined with EDTA or citric acid were superior in giving high concentrations in soil, and vigor plant growth. In addition, the solubility of P increased by about 5-6 times for all sources in the presence of P- dissolving bacteria. It seemed that the presence of appreciable amounts of Mg, S, Fe, Mn, B and other elements in BS played a role in enhancing plant growth and increasing yield, especially in the presence of added bacteria. BS could be used in calcareous soils and for soils characterized by low nutrient supply as sandy.

Author Biographies

  • Abd-Elmonem Mohamed ELGALA, Professor at Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt
    Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University
  • Shaimaa Hassan ABD-ELRAHMAN, Associate Professor at Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University, Egypt
    Soil and Water Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University


Abd-Elrahman, Shaimaa H. (2016). Effect of unconventional phosphorus sources and phosphate solubilizing bacteria on fractions of phosphorus in a calcareous soil cultivated with wheat plants. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 12, 1-11.

Adugna, G. (2016). A review on impact of compost on soil properties, water use and crop productivity. Academic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Research, 4, 93-104.

Afshan, S., Ali, Sh., Bharwana, S., Rizwan, M., Farid, M., & Abbas, F., et al. (2015). Citric acid enhances the phytoextraction of chromium, plant growth, and photosynthesis by alleviating the oxidative damages in Brassica napus L. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 11679-89.

Amalraj, E.L.D., Maiyappan, S., & Peter, A.J. (2012). In vivo and In vitro studies of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum on nutrient mobilization, antagonism and plant growth promoting traits. Journal of Ecobiotechnology, 4, 35-42.

Bing, L., Biao, T., Zhen, M., Hanchi, Ch., & Hongbo, L. (2019). Physical and chemical properties of steel slag and utilization technology of steel slag at home and abroad. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 242, 1-6.

Bulut, S. (2013). Evaluation of yield and quality parameters of phosphorous-solubilizing and N-fixing bacteria inoculated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 37, 545-554.

Cakmakci, R., Kantar, F., & Algur, F. (1999). Sugar beet and barley yields in relation to Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum inoculation. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 162, 437-442.;2-W

Campitelli, P.A., Velasco, M.I., & Ceppi, S.B. (2003). Charge development and acid-base characteristics of soil and compost humic acids. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 48(3).

Chapman, H.D., & Pratt, P.F. (1961). Methods of Analysis for Soils, Plants, and Waters. Division of Agric. Sci. Berkeley, Univ. California, USA, pp. 150-152.

Doran, I., Akinci, C., & Yildirim, M. (2003). Effects of delta humate applied with different doses and methods on yield and yield components of diyarbakir-81 wheat cultivar. 5th Field Crops Congress, Diyarbakir, Turkey, 2, 530-534.

Drouillon, M., & Merckx, R. (2003). The role of citric acid as a phosphorus mobilization mechanism in highly P-fixing soils. Gayana Botanica, 60(1), 55-62.

Elgala, A.M., & Amberger, A. (2017). Factors affecting solubilization of rock phosphates in soils. International Journal of Plant and Soil Science, 14, 1-8.

Elhag, R.S., Elgala, A.M., Elsharawy, M.O., & Eid, M.A. (2019).

Evaluate the effect of some factors affecting solubilization of phosphorus in rhizosphere. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Ain Shams University, 27, 913-923.

Fouda, K.F. (2017). Effect of phosphorus level and some growth regulators on productivity of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). Egyptian Journal of Soil Science, 57, 73-87.

Grover, R. (2003). Rock phosphate and phosphate solubilizing microbes as a source of nutrients for crops. M.Sc. Thesis, Patiala.

Hamed, M.H., & Gamal, M.M. (2014). Effect of incubation periods and some organic materials on phosphorus forms in calcareous soils. International Journal of Technology Enhancements and Emerging Engineering Research (IJTEEE), 2, 108-118.

Hopkins, B., & Ellsworth, J. (2005). Phosphorus availability with alkaline/ calcareous soil. Western Nutrient Management Conference, Vol. 6. Salt Lake City, UT, pp. 88-93.

Houassine, D., Latati, M., Rebouh, N.Y., & Gérard, F. (2020). Phosphorus acquisition processes in the field: Study of faba bean cultivated on calcareous soils in Algeria. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 66, 168-181.

Huang, M., Zhu, Y., Li, Z., Huang, B., Luo, N., Liu, Ch., & Zeng, G. (2016). Compost as a soil amendment to remediate heavy metal-contaminated agricultural soil: Mechanisms, efficacy, problems, and strategies. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 227-359.

Illmer, P., Barbato, A., & Schinner, F. (1995). Solubilization of hardly soluble AlPO4 with P- solubilizing microorganisms. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 27, 260-270.

Kanwal, U., Ali, S., Shakoor, M.B., Farid, M., Hussain, S., & Yasmeen, T., et al. (2014). EDTA ameliorates phytoextraction of lead and plant growth by reducing morphological and biochemical injuries in Brassica napus L. under lead stress. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 9899-9910.

Klute, A. (1986). Methods of Soil Analysis, part I, 2nd ed. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Lee, Ch., Park, S., Hwang, H., Kim, M., Jung, H., & Luyima, D., et al. (2019). Effects of food waste compost on the shift of microbial community in water saturated and unsaturated soil condition. Applied Biological Chemistry, 62, 1-7.

Mihoub, A., Daddi Bouhoun, M., Asif, N., & Saker, M.L. (2016). Low-molecular weight organic acids improve plant availability of phosphorus in different textured calcareous soils. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 63, 1023-1034.

Mihoub, A., Daddi Bouhoun, M., & Naeem, A. (2018). Short-term effects of phosphate fertilizer enriched with low-molecular-weight organic acids on phosphorus release kinetics and its availability under calcareous conditions in arid region. Journal of Scientific Agriculture, 2, 66-70.

Mihoub, A., Amin, A.A., Asif, N., & Daddi Bouhoun, M. (2019) Improvement in phosphorus nutrition of wheat plants grown in a calcareous sandy soil by incorporating chemical phosphorus fertilizer with some selected organic substances. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 113(2), 263-272.

Negim, O., Eloifi, B., Mench, M., Bes, C., Gaste, H., Motelica-Heino, M., & Le Coustumer, P. (2010). Effect of basic slag addition on soil properties, growth and leaf mineral composition of beans in a Cu-contaminated soil. Journal of Soil and Sediment Contamination, 19, 174-187.

Ning, D., Liang, Y., Liu, Z., Xiao, J., & Duan, A. (2016). Impacts of steel-slag-based silicate fertilizer on soil acidity and silicon availability and metals-immobilization in a paddy soil. PLoS ONE, 11, 1-15.

Page, A.L., Miller, R.H., & Keeney, D.R. (1982). Methods of Soil Analysis, part II, 2nd ed. Wisconsin, USA.

Płaza, A., Rzążewska, E., & Gąsiorowska, B. (2021). Effect of Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum bacteria and L-Alpha proline amino acid on iron content in soil and Triticum aestivum L. plants in sustainable agriculture system. Agronomy, 11, 511. doi:10.3390/agronomy11030511

Razaq, M., Zhang, P., Shen, H., & Salahuddin (2017). Influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth and root morphology of Acer mono. PLoS ONE, 12, 1-13.

Sahin, S., Karaman, M.R., & Gebologlu, N. (2014). The effect of humic acid application upon the phosphorus uptake of the tomato plant (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). Scientific Research and Essays, 9, 586-590.

SAS. (2000). Statistical analysis system, SAS User’s Guide: Statistics. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, USA.

Satisha, G., & Devarajan, L. (2005). Humic substances and their complexation with phosphorus and calcium during composting of press mud and other biodegradables. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 36, 805-818.

Saxena, A.K., Kumar, M., Chakdar, H., Anuroopa, N., & Bagyaraj, D.J. (2020). Bacillus species in soil as a natural resource for plant health and nutrition. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 128, 1583-1594. doi:10.1111/jam.14506

Soil Survey Staff. (2010). Keys to Soil Taxonomy (11th ed.). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, U.S. Government Printing Office.

Taiwo, A.M. (2011). Composting as a sustainable waste management technique in developing countries. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 4, 93-102.

Taskin, M.B., Kadioglu, Y.K., Sahin, O., Inal, A., & Gunes, A. (2019). Effect of acid modified biochar on the growth and essential and non-essential element content of bean, chickpea, soybean, and maize grown in calcareous soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 50, 1604-1613.

Tsakiridis, P.E., Papadimitriou, G.D., Tsivilis, S., & Koroneos, C. (2008). Utilization of steel slag for Portland cement clinker production. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 805-811.

Watanabe, F.C., & Olsen, S.R. (1965). Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and NaHCO3 extracts from soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings, 29, 677-678.

Yildirim, I.Z., & Prezzi, M. (2011). Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological properties of steel slag. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2011, 1-13.



10. 11. 2021



Original Scientific Article

How to Cite

ELGALA, A.-E. M., & ABD-ELRAHMAN, S. H. (2021). The possible use of scarce soluble materials as a source of phosphorus in Vicia faba L. grown in calcareous soils. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 117(3), 1–14.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 372

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.