Correlation, regression and cluster analyses on yield attributes and popping characteristics of popcorn (Zea mays L. everta) in derived savanna and rainforest agro-ecologies of Nigeria


  • Oloruntoba Olatayo OLAKOJO University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Folusho BANKOLE University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Dotun OGUNNIYAN Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria



qualitative traits, dendrogram, popcorn yield, popping volume, principal component, popcorn, morphology


Information on the genetic and agronomic relationship among the crop characters is important for the breeding programs. This study aimed at determining the relationship among grain yield, popping expansion and other agronomic characters in 19 popcorn lines evaluated in replicated trials at two locations. Correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between agronomic traits while multiple stepwise regression analyses was used to determine the contribution of other agronomic traits to grain yield. Results showed that plant and ear heights as well as cob length exhibited positive and significant association with grain yield. Popping volume showed negative and significant association (-0.45**) with grain yield while 100-grain mass had a negative and significant correlation (-0.37**) with popping volume. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that ear height, cob length, plant aspect and 100-grain mass contributed a total of 53.66 % to variation in grain yield, with ear height contributing the highest portion (22.51 %). Cluster analysis grouped popcorn lines into four different clusters, where ‘Small Pearl Shaped’ and ‘Popcorn 33-1-Y’ belonged to cluster II and IV, respectively, showing how divergent they are and possible utilization for hybrid formation. Improvement for popcorn should focus on identifying lines with acceptable level of popping volume and improved on their grain yield and yield attributes.

Author Biography

  • Oloruntoba Olatayo OLAKOJO, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
    I serve as Graduate Research Fellow under Maize project at the Faculty of Agriculture.  I am currently on my PhD programme at the Department of Agronomy (specialized in Plant Breeding and Genetics.


Alikhani, M.A., Khazaei, F., Yari, L. and Khandan, A. (2010). Study on the correlation, regression and path coefficient analysis in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) under different levels of plant density and nitrogen rate. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 5(6), 14-19.

Badu-Apraku, B., Fakorede, M.A.B., Menkir, A. and Sanogo, D. (editors). (2012). Conduct and Management of Maize Field Trials. IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria. 59p.

Burak, R. and Broccoli, A. M. (2001). Genetic and environmental correlations between yield comonents and popping expansion in popcorn hybrids. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, 75, 38-40.

Cruz, C.D., Carneiro, P.C.S. and Regazzi, A.J. (2014). Modelos biométricos aplicados aomelhoramento genético. 3rd edn. Ed. UFV, Viçosa.

Dofing, S.M., Croz-Mason, N.D. and Compton, M.A.T. (1991). Inheritance of expansion volume and yield in two popcorn x dent corn crosses. Crop Science, 31, 715-718.

Gautam, A.S., Mittal, R.K and Bhandari, J.C. (1999). Correlations and path analysis in popcorn. Annals of Biology (Hissar) 15(2), 196.

Hair, J. R., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. and Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis with readings. 4th edition, Prentice-Hall, Englewood cliffs, NJ.

IBM Crop, Releases (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Iken, J.E. (1993). Popcorn production and utilization. In Fakorede, M.A., Alofe, O.O. and Kim, S.K. (eds). Maize Improvement Production and Utilization in Nigeria.

Lezzoni, A.F. and Pritts, M.P. (1991). Application of principal component analysis to horticultural research. Horticultural Science, 26(4), 334-338.

Mohanan, K. (2010). Essentials of Plant Breeding PHI Learning Private. Ltd. New Delhi.

Moradi, M. and Azarpour E. (2011). Determination of most important part of yield components by path analysis in corn. Journal of American Science, 7, 134-147.

Ogunbodede, B.A. (1997). Multivariate analysis of genetic diversity in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). African Crops Science Journal, 5(2), 127-133.

Olakojo, O.O., Olaoye, G., Akintunde, A.T. (2019). Performance of popcorn introductions for agronomic characters, grain yield and popping qualities in the forest and derived savannah agro-ecologies of Nigeria. Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 114(1), 53-60.

Rangel, R.M., Junior, A.T.A and Junior, S.P.F. (2011). Association between agronomical traits and popping expansion in a popcorn population under recurrent selection. Cienciae agrotechnologia, 35(2), 225-233.

Reddy, V.S., Mohan, Y. C., Rao, N.V and Krishna, L. (2003). Character association and path analysis in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta). Crop research, 25(2), 297-300.

Rupak, K., Verma and Singh, T.P. (1979). Interrelations among certain quantitative traits in popcorn. The Mysore Journal of Agricultural Science, 13, 15-18.

SAS Institute (2009). SAS system for Windows v. 9.3. SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC.

Singh, H., Chawla J. and Grewa, M. (2006). Correlation and path coefficient analysis on some elite maize genotypes. Crop Improvement, 33, 31-33.

Sun, J., Gao, J., Wang, Z., Hu, S., Zhang, F., Bao, H. and Fan Y. (2019). Maize canopy photosynthetic efficiency, plant growth, and yield responses to tillage depth. Agronomy, 9(3), 1-18.

Sreckov, Z., Nastasic A., Bocanski J., Djalovic I., Vukosavljev M. and Jockovic B. (2011). Correlation and path analysis of grain yield and morphological traits in test-cross populations of maize. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 43, 1729-1731.

Tandzi, N. L. and Mutengwa, C. (2019). Estimation of maize (Zea mays L.) yield per harvest area: appropriate methods. Agronomy.

Vijayabharathi, A., Anandakumar, C.R. and Gnanamalar, R.P. (2009). Combining ability analysis for yield and its components in popcorn (Zea mays var. everta Sturt.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1, 28-32.

Zhang, H., Wang, X., He, D. and Shui, H. (2013). Regression and correlation analysis between high-yield stability and main agronomic traits in maize. Journal of Southern Agriculture, 44(10), 1625-1628.



10. 11. 2021



Original Scientific Article

How to Cite

OLAKOJO, O. O., BANKOLE, F., & OGUNNIYAN, D. (2021). Correlation, regression and cluster analyses on yield attributes and popping characteristics of popcorn (Zea mays L. everta) in derived savanna and rainforest agro-ecologies of Nigeria. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 117(3), 1–11.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 418

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.