Assessing agricultural commercialization and rural infrastructure development in rural Southwestern Nigeria: evidence from smallholder cassava farmers


  • Olutosin Ademola OTEKUNRIN Department of Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB), Nigeria



Crop Commercialization Index (CCI), cassava farmers, subsistence agriculture, rural infrastructure, ordered logit model


This study assessed agricultural commercialization and rural infrastructure development of smallholder cassava farmers in rural Southwestern Nigeria. The study was conducted in Nigeria with cross-sectional data collected from 352 smallholder cassava farmers. Crop commercialization index (CCI) was used to compute each farmer’s CCI and categorized into four levels while ordered logit model was employed to analyze the determinants of agricultural commercialization of cassava farmers in the study areas. Availability of some important rural infrastructures were assessed across cassava farmers’ commercialization levels. The results revealed that 13.1 % of cassava farmers did not participate in the sale of cassava roots while 86.9 % of them participated actively in the output market. The mean and maximum CCI in the study areas was 59.1 and 95.5 respectively. The results also showed that less than 40 % and 20 % of cassava farmers in all commercialization levels had access to electricity and piped water respectively. The ordered logit regression analysis indicated that age, transport cost, cassava marketing experience, and distance to market were among the determinants of agricultural commercialization. Therefore, stakeholders should expedite policy actions capable of promoting rural infrastructure development that will enhance agricultural production, marketing and improve the quality of life of rural farming communities.


Adepoju, A.O., Oyegoke, O and Amusan, A. (2019). Productivity and market participation of fluted pumpkin farmers under tropical conditions. International Journal of Vegetable Science,

Adeyemo, T., Amaza, P., Okoruwa, V., Akinyosoye, V., Salmom and Abass, A. (2019). Determinants of biomass utilization: Evidence from cassava smallholders in Nigeria. Sustainability, 11(9), 2516.

Africa Development Bank (AfDB) (2018). The Africa Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI), 2018, 1-17.

Africa Development Bank (AfDB) (2020). The Africa Infrastructure Development Index (AIDI), 2020, 1-19.

Agricultural Policy Research in Africa (APRA). (2018). What is agricultural commercialization: who benefits and how do we measure it? Issue 1, 1-6.

Agwu, N. (2012). Determinants of profitability among plantain marketers in Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Development Studies, 7(1), 49-58.

Awotide, B.A., Diagne, A and Omonona, B.T. (2012). Impact of Improved Agricultural Technology Adoption on Sustainable Rice Productivity and Rural Farmers’ Welfare in Nigeria: A Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE) Technique. In Proceedings of the African Economic Conference, Kigali, Rwanda, 30 October–2 November 2012.

Awoyemi T.T., Odozi, J.C., Otekunrin O.A and Ehirim N.C. (2015). Efficient resource use: Does human capital matter? The case of cassava production farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development, 18(1), 2064-2074.

Ayinde, I.A., Otekunrin, O.A., Akinbode, S.O and Otekunrin, O.A. (2020). Food security in Nigeria: Impetus for growth and development. Journal of agricultural Economics and Rural Development, 6(2), 808-820.

Booroah, V. K. (2002). Logit and probit: Ordered and multinomial models. Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Series No. 138 (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications).

Carletto, C., Corral, P and Guelfi, A. (2017). Agricultural commercialization and nutrition revisited: Empirical evidence from three African countries. Food Policy, 67, 106-118.

Effiong EO (2005). Efficiency of Production in Selected Livestock Enterprises in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Unpublished Ph.D Dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Enete A.A and Igbokwe, E.M. (2009). Cassava market participation decisions of producing households in Africa, Tropicultura, 27(3), 129-136.

FAOSTAT. (2021). Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Statistical Database; Statistical Division; FAO: Rome, Italy.

FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO. (2021) The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Transforming food systems for food security, improved nutrition and affordable healthy diets for all. Rome, FAO.

FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP, and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2021. Repurposing food and agricultural policies to make healthy diets more affordable. FAO, Rome. Find Latitude and Longitude (2021).

Gebremedhin, B and Jaleta M. (2010). Commercialization of Smallholders: Is Market Participation Enough? Paper presented at the Agricultural Economists Association of South Africa (AEASA) Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.

Huffman, W.E. (2001). Human capital: Education and agriculture. In Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 1st ed.; Bruce, L.G., Gordon, C.R., Eds.; Elsevier Science: Amsterdam, The Nertherlands.

Hussayn, J.A., Gulak, D.M., Aboaba, K.O and Keshinro, O.O. (2020). Effects of agricultural commercialization on poverty status of smallholder cassava farming hjouseholds in Oyo state. Scientific Paper Series Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, 20(4), 255-266.

Idachaba, F.S. (1985). Infrastructural Economics. University Press, Ibadan.

Ikuemonisan, E.I., Mafimisebi, T.E., Ajibefun, I and Adenegan, K. (2020). Cassava production in Nigeria: Trends, instability and decomposition analysis. Heliyon, 6(10), 1-9.

Kolapo, A., Yusuf, O.J and Abdulmumin, M.O. (2020). Market participation and food security status of bio-fortified cassava processors in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 7(3), 174-184.

Lawal, B.O and Samuel, F.O. (2010). Determinant of nutritional status of children in farming households in Oyo state, Nigeria. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 10(10), 4235-4253.

Maps of World (2021).

Martey, E., Al-Hassan, R.M and Kuwornu, J.K.M. (2012). Commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Ghana: A Tobit regression analysis. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(14), 2131-2141.

National Population Commission (NPC) [Nigeria] and ICF (2019). Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018. Abuja, Nigeria and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NPC and ICF.

OECD/ACET (2020). Quality Infrastructure in 21st Century Africa: Prioritising, Accelerating and Scaling up in the Context of Pida (2021-30).

Obayelu, A.E. (2012). Households’ food security status and its determinants in the North-Central Nigeria, Food Economics, 9(4), 241-256.

Obisesan A.A. (2012). Cassava marketing and rural poverty among smallholder farmers in Southwest, Nigeria. Bulletin of Environmental, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 1(8), 29-34.

Ogutu, S.O., Godecke, T and Qaim, M. (2020). Agricultural commercialisation and nutrition in smallholder farm households. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 71(2), 534-555.

Okoye, B.C., Abass, A., Bachwenkizi B., Asumugha, G., Alenkhe, B., Ranaivoson, R., Randrianarivelo, R., Rabemanantsoa, N and Ralimanana, I. (2016). Effect of transaction costs on market participation among smallholder cassava farmers in central Madagascar. Cogent Economics & Finance, 4, 1-20.

Oluwatayo, I. B and Rachoene, M. A. (2017). Effect of agricultural commercialization on food security among smallholder farmers in Polokwane municipality, Capricorn district of Limpopo province, South Africa. Journal of Agribusiness & Rural Development, 43(1), 143–156.

Olwande, J and Mathenge, M.K. (2011). Market Participation among Poor Rural Households in Kenya, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development: Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil.

Omiti, J. M., Otieno, D. J., Nyanamba, T. O. and McCullough, E. (2009). Factors influencing the intensity of market participation by smallholder farmers: A Case study of rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya. African Journal of Agricultural and Rural Economics, 3, 57-82

Omotayo, A.O., Olagunju K.O., Omotoso, A.B., Ogunniyi, A.I., Otekunrin, O.A and Daud, A.S. (2021). Clean water, sanitation and under-five children diarrhea incidence: Empirical evidence from the South Africa’s General Household Survey. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 63150-63162.

Opondo, F.A., Dannenberg, P and Willkomm, M. (2017). Characterization of the levels of cassava commercialization among smallholder farmers in Kenya: A multinomial regression approach. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(41), 3024-3036.

Otekunrin, O.A (2011). The Effect of Human Capital Accumulation on Resource Use Efficiency among Cassava-based Farmers in Oyo State. M.Sc dissertation, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Otekunrin, O. A and Sawicka, B. (2019). Cassava, a 21st century crop: How can Nigeria harness its enormous trade potential? Acta Scientific Agriculture, 3(8), 194-202.

Otekunrin, O. A., Momoh, S. and Ayinde, I. A. (2019a). Smallholders’ farmers’ market participation: Concepts and methodological sapproaches from Sub-Saharan Africa. Current Agriculture Research Journal, 7(2), 139-157.

Otekunrin, O.A and Otekunrin O.A. (2021a), Healthy and Sustainable Diets: Implications for Achieving SDG2, In: Leal Filho W., Azul A.M., Brandli L., Özuyar P.G., Wall T. (eds) Zero Hunger. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Springer, Cham.

Otekunrin, O.A and Otekunrin OA (2021b). Dietary diversity choices of women: Evidence from cassava farming households in Nigeria. Archives of Current Research International, 21(4), 11-22.

Otekunrin, O.A., Ayinde, I.A., Sanusi, R.A and Otekunrin O.A (2022a). Assessing the determinants of agricultural commercialization and challenges confronting cassava farmers in Oyo State. Journal of Socioeconomics and Development, 5(1), 76-87.

Otekunrin, O.A., Otekunrin, O.A., Ayinde, I.A., Sanusi, R.A., Onabanjo, O.O. and Ariyo, O. (2022b). Dietary diversity, environment and health-related factors of under-five children: Evidence from cassava commercialization households in rural South-West Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(13), 19432-19446.

Otekunrin, O.A. (2022). Investigating food insecurity, health and environment-relatd factors, and agricultural commercialization in Southwestern Nigeria: evidence from smallholder farming households. Environmenal Science and Pollution Research, 29, 51469-51488.

Pingali, P. L and Rosegrant, M. W. (1995). Agricultural commercialization and diversification: Processes and Policies. Food Policy, 20(3), 171–185.

Rapsomanikis, G. (2015). The economic lives of smallholder farmers: An analysis based on household data from nine countries. FAO, Rome.

Renkkow, M., Hallstrom, D.G and Karanja, D.D. (2004). Rural infrastructure, transaction costs and market participation in Kenya Journal of Development Economics, 73(1), 349–367.

SAHEL (2016). Cassava: A staple Crop in Nigeria, 1-3.

Shively, G. and Sununtnasuk, C. (2015). Agricultural diversity and child stunting in Nepal The Journal of Development Studies, 51(8), 1078-1096.

Saranraj, P., Behera, S.S and Ray, R.C. (2019). Traditional foods from tropical root and tuber crops: Innovations and challenges. Innovations in Traditional Foods, 159-191.

Sebatta, C., Mugisha, J., Katungi, E., Kashaara, A and Kyomugisha, H. (2014). Smallholder farmers’ decision and level of participation in the potato market in Uganda. Modern Economy, 5(8), 895–906.

Strasberg, P., Jayne, T., Yamano, T., Nyoro, J.K., Karanja, D.D and Strauss, J. (1999). Effects of Agricultural Commercialization on Food Crop Input Use and Productivity in Kenya, Food Security International Working Papers 54675, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.

Timmer, CP. (1997). Farmers and markets: The political economy of new paradigms. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 79(2), 621–627.

Torres-Reyna, O. (2014). Getting started in Logit and Ordered logit. Data and Statistical Services, Princeton University.

UNDESA (2019). World Population Prospects 2019, United Nations,

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2021). Young people rally to put an end to open defecation in West and Central Africa.

von Braun, J. (1995). Agricultural commercialization: impacts on income and nutrition and implications for policy. Food Policy, 20(3), 187–202.

von Braun, J., John, K and Puetz, D. (1994). Nutritional Effects of Commercialization of a Woman’s Crop: Irrigated Rice in the Gambia’, in J. von Braun and E. Kennedy (eds), Agricultural Commercialization, Economic Development and Nutrition, Baltimore MA: Johns Hopkins University Press

World Bank (2008). World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for development. 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433, USA.

Worldometer (2021).



30. 12. 2022



Original Scientific Article

How to Cite

OTEKUNRIN, O. A. (2022). Assessing agricultural commercialization and rural infrastructure development in rural Southwestern Nigeria: evidence from smallholder cassava farmers. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 118(4), 1–17.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 634

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.