Classification of pomegranate cultivars by multivariate analysis of biochemical constituents of HPLC

Authors

  • Mohammad SAADATIAN Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
  • Haval ABDULLAH Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
  • Fatima YOUSIF Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
  • Rwa ASKANDAR Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
  • Roya RIZGAR Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq
  • Maryam SABER Soran University, Faculty of Education, General Science Department, Soran, Kurdistan Regional Government, Iraq

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2023.119.2.2645

Keywords:

antioxidant, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, Punica granatum, phenolic compounds

Abstract

Pomegranate fruits are highly diverse and may be divided into geographical groupings based on their characteristics. Genetic research has verified these categories in recent years and further categorized variants into geographic-genetic groupings. This study aimed to assess the biochemical contents of eight varieties of pomegranate fruit seed and the categorization of pomegranate using multivariate statistical analysis. Polyphenolic chemicals are key secondary metabolites in pomegranate, and their presence influences the quality and sensory qualities of the fruit they produce. Fruit extracts from the Faqyan cultivar contained the highest total phenolic content of all studied cultivars. Pomegranate cultivars such as Shaqlawa, Halabja Sour, and Faqyan were shown to have the highest antioxidant activity. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, rutin, apigenin, rosmaric acid, and quercetin were the most abundant phytochemical components in the study. According to the results of multivariate analysis, pomegranate cultivars were divided into four major groups. The pomegranate fruit seed is the most abundant source of antioxidants and beneficial phytochemical elements. Finally, the Sidakan Sweet and Shaqlawa cultivars included a significant content polyphenolic compounds.

References

Al-Maiman, S. A., & Ahmad, D. (2002). Changes in physical and chemical properties during pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit maturation. Food Chemistry, 76(4), 437-441. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00301-6

Alirezalu, A., Salehi, P., Ahmadi, N., Sonboli, A., Aceto, S., Hatami Maleki, H., & Ayyari, M. (2018). Flavonoids profile and antioxidant activity in flowers and leaves of hawthorn species (Crataegus spp.) from different regions of Iran. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 452-470. https://doi.org/10.1080/10942912.2018.1446146

Borochov-Neori, H., Judeinstein, S., Harari, M., Bar-Ya’akov, I., Patil, B. S., Lurie, S., & Holland, D. (2011). Climate effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition in the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit arils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(10), 5325-5334. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf2003688

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.-E., & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

Caleb, O. J., Opara, U. L., & Witthuhn, C. R. (2012). Modified atmosphere packaging of pomegranate fruit and arils: a review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947-011-0525-7

Çam, M., Hışıl, Y., & Durmaz, G. (2009). Classification of eight pomegranate juices based on antioxidant capacity measured by four methods. Food Chemistry, 112(3), 721-726. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.009

Castelluccio, C., Paganga, G., Melikian, N., Paul Bolwell, G., Pridham, J., Sampson, J., & Rice-Evans, C. (1995). Antioxidant potential of intermediates in phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants. FEBs Letters, 368(1), 188-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-5793(95)00639-Q

Chen, J. H., & Ho, C.-T. (1997). Antioxidant activities of caffeic acid and its related hydroxycinnamic acid compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 45(7), 2374-2378. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf970055t

Cos, P., Rajan, P., Vedernikova, I., Calomme, M., Pieters, L., Vlietinck, A. J., . . . Berghe, D. V. (2002). In vitro antioxidant profile of phenolic acid derivatives. Free Radical Research, 36(6), 711-716. https://doi.org/10.1080/10715760290029182

Cristosto, C., Mitcham, E., & Kader, A. (2000). Pomegranate: recommendations for maintaining postharvest quality. Produce Facts. Postharvest Research and Information Centre, University of California, Davis, USA.

Csomós, E., Héberger, K., & Simon-Sarkadi, L. (2002). Principal component analysis of biogenic amines and polyphenols in Hungarian wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(13), 3768-3774. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf011699a

Fawole, O. A., & Opara, U. L. (2013). Effects of maturity status on biochemical content, polyphenol composition and antioxidant capacity of pomegranate fruit arils (‘Bhagwa’). South African Journal of Botany, 85, 23-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2012.11.010

Fischer, U. A., Carle, R., & Kammerer, D. R. (2011). Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel, mesocarp, aril and differently produced juices by HPLC-DAD–ESI/MSn. Food Chemistry, 127(2), 807-821. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.12.156

Ghasemzadeh, A., Omidvar, V., & Jaafar, H. Z. (2012). Polyphenolic content and their antioxidant activity in leaf extract of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 6(15), 2971-2976. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR11.1353

Gholizadeh-Moghadam, N., Hosseini, B., & Alirezalu, A. (2019). Classification of barberry genotypes by multivariate analysis of biochemical constituents and HPLC profiles. Phytochemical Analysis, 30(4), 385-394. https://doi.org/10.1002/pca.2821

Gil, M. I., Tomás-Barberán, F. A., Hess-Pierce, B., Holcroft, D. M., & Kader, A. A. (2000). Antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice and its relationship with phenolic composition and processing. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(10), 4581-4589. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf000404a

Gundogdu, M., & Yilmaz, H. (2012). Organic acid, phenolic profile and antioxidant capacities of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) cultivars and selected genotypes. Scientia Horticulturae, 143, 38-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2012.05.029

Hättenschwiler, S., & Vitousek, P. M. (2000). The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 15(6), 238-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01861-9

Holland, D., Hatib, K., & Bar-Ya’akov, I. (2009). 2 Pomegranate: Botany, horticulture, breeding. Horticultural Reviews, 35(2), 127-191. Kwan, W., & Kowalski, B. (1978). Classification of wines by applying pattern recognition to chemical composition data. Journal of Food Science, 43(4), 1320-1323. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470593776.ch2

Lansky, E. P., & Newman, R. A. (2007). Punica granatum (pomegranate) and its potential for prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 109(2), 177-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.006

Li, X., Wasila, H., Liu, L., Yuan, T., Gao, Z., Zhao, B., & Ahmad, I. (2015). Physicochemical characteristics, polyphenol compositions and antioxidant potential of pomegranate juices from 10 Chinese cultivars and the environmental factors analysis. Food Chemistry, 175, 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.12.003

Macheix, J.-J., Fleuriet, A., & Billot, J. (2018). Fruit phenolics. CRC press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781351072175

Mariangel, E., Díaz, M. R., Alvarez, W. L., Bensch, E., Schalchli, H., & Ibarra, P. (2013). The antioxidant properties of calafate (Berberis microphylla) fruits from four different locations in southern Chile. Ciencia e Investigación Agraria: Revista Latinoamericana de Ciencias de la Agricultura, 40(1), 161-170. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202013000100014

Martinez, J., Melgarejo, P., Hernández, F., Salazar, D., & Martinez, R. (2006). Seed characterisation of five new pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties. Scientia Horticulturae, 110(3), 241-246. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.07.018

Melgarejo, P., Salazar, D. M., & Artes, F. (2000). Organic acids and sugars composition of harvested pomegranate fruits. European Food Research and Technology, 211(3), 185-190. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002170050021

Mohammad, S., Abdurahman, P., Salim, K., Younis, P., Abdurahman, H., & Mohammad, S. (2018). Physico-chemical characteristics of pomegranate accessions from the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Belgrade), 63(4), 355-366. https://doi.org/10.2298/JAS1804355M

Revilla, I., & González-SanJosé, M. L. (2002). Multivariate evaluation of changes induced in red wine characteristics by the use of extracting agents. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(16), 4525-4530. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf020175n

Russo, M., Fanali, C., Tripodo, G., Dugo, P., Muleo, R., Dugo, L., . . . Mondello, L. (2018). Analysis of phenolic compounds in different parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MS and evaluation of their antioxidant activity: application to different Italian varieties. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 410(15), 3507-3520. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-018-0854-8

Sayyah, M., Boostani, H., Pakseresht, S., & Malayeri, A. (2010). Comparison of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. with fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive− compulsive disorder. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 34(2), 362-365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.12.016

Shahidi, F., & Chandrasekara, A. (2010). Hydroxycinnamates and their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Phytochemistry Reviews, 9(1), 147-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11101-009-9142-8

Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. M. (1999). [14] Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of folin-ciocalteu reagent. In Methods in enzymology, 299, 152-178). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

Viuda‐Martos, M., Fernández‐López, J., & Pérez‐Álvarez, J. (2010). Pomegranate and its many functional components as related to human health: a review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9(6), 635-654. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00131.x

Wang, S. Y., Bunce, J. A., & Maas, J. (2003). Elevated carbon dioxide increases contents of antioxidant compounds in field-grown strawberries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(15), 4315-4320. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf021172d

Yildiz, H., Ercisli, S., Sengul, M., Topdas, E. F., Beyhan, O., Cakir, O., . . . Orhan, E. (2014). Some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive content and antioxidant characteristics of non-sprayed Barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) fruits from Turkey. Erwerbs-Obstbau, 56(4), 123-129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10341-014-0216-4

Downloads

Published

27. 06. 2023

Issue

Section

Original Scientific Article

How to Cite

SAADATIAN, M., ABDULLAH, H., YOUSIF, F., ASKANDAR, R., RIZGAR, R., & SABER, M. (2023). Classification of pomegranate cultivars by multivariate analysis of biochemical constituents of HPLC. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 119(2), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.14720/aas.2023.119.2.2645

Similar Articles

1-10 of 251

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)