Non-chemical control options against the virus vector nematodes Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen, 1950


  • Julija Polanšek Kmetijski inštitut Slovenije, Ljubljana
  • Franci Aco CELAR Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za agronomijo, Ljubljana
  • Saša ŠIRCA Kmetijski inštitut Slovenije, Ljubljana



virus-transmitting nematodes, Xiphinema index, nepoviruses, vitis vinifera, GFLV, nematicides, biological control


Nematodes are widespread organisms that exhibit remarkable ubiquity, biodiversity, and adaptability in diverse ecosystems. While most nematodes are beneficial, there are also some parasitic species that have harmful effects. Among these plant-parasitic nematodes is the species Xiphinema index. It primarily colonizes the root environment of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.), as these vines serve as its primary host. Although the nematode’s direct effects on roots are not particularly problematic, it poses a significant threat to grapevine because it can transmit and introduce Grapevine Fanleaf Virus (GFLV), a member of the genus Nepovirus. Infection with GFLV can result in yield losses of over 80 %. Therefore, it is imperative to take preventive measures to contain the uncontrolled spread of nematodes and the resulting infections in vineyards. In addition to transmission through planting material, agricultural machinery and implements in vineyards are also important vectors. Traditional chemical methods of controlling X. index have proven ineffective due to the nematodes’ resilience and widespread distribution in the soil. Future efforts should therefore focus on pursuing alternative, more effective approaches. In addition to intercropping, the efficacy of bacterial and fungal preparations has also been tested and offers great potential for further research.


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Polanšek, J., CELAR, F. A., & ŠIRCA, S. (2023). Non-chemical control options against the virus vector nematodes Xiphinema index Thorne & Allen, 1950. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 119(4), 1–12.

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