Status and distribution of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Slovenia from 2005 to 2009

Authors

  • Ivan Kos
  • Iztok Koren
  • Hubert Potočnik
  • Miha Krofel

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.55.2.15535

Keywords:

Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx, Dinaric population, monitoring, distribution, Slovenia

Abstract

In Slovenia, the status of the re-introduced Eurasian lynx population is monitored using the SCALP (Status and Conservation of Alpine Lynx Populations) methodology. Monitoring is organized by the Slovenia Forest Service in cooperation with other institutions and individuals. We analysed the data for the 2005–2009 monitoring period and compared it with the previous periods to explore population status and trends for the northern part of the Dinaric population. During this last pentad we recorded six C1 category data points, 832 data points of category C2, and 96 points of category C3. These numbers are comparable to the previously reported period of 2000–2004. The spatial distribution of signs of lynx presence remained similar compared to the previous period. Presence and status of the lynx are easier to interpret because of additional telemetry data and a habitat suitability that has been produced since the last report. We assume that this lynx population is critically endangered, because of demographic as well as genetic reasons. To prevent local extinction, an active approach is needed for revitalization of the population which would address demographic factors as well as improve the depleted gene pool.

References

Andren, H. Linnell, J.D.C., Liberg, O., Ahlqvist, P., Andersen, R., Danell, A., Franzen, R., Kvam, T., Odden, J, Segerstrom, P., 2012. Estimating total lynx (Lynx lynx) population size from censuses of family groups. Wildlife Biol., 8, 299–306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/wlb.2002.027

Čop, J., 1994. Spremljanje naselitve risa (Lynx lynx L.) v Sloveniji (1973–1993). Raziskovalna naloga, IGLG Ljubljana, 256 pp.

Čop, J., Frković, A., 1998. The re-introduction of lynx in Slovenia and its present status in Slovenia and Croatia. Hystrix, 10, 65–76

Demšar, P., 2005. Monitoring of carnivores with scent-stations and hair snares in the area of ribniška Velika gora. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Graduation thesis. Ljubljana, 86 pp.

Herfindal, I., Linnell, J.D.C., Moa, P.F., Odden, J., Austmo, L.B., Andersen, R., 2005. Does recreational hunting of lynx reduce depredation loses of domestic sheep. J. Wildlife Manage., 69, 1034–1042. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2193/0022-541X(2005)069[1034:DRHOLR]2.0.CO;2

Huber, T., Kaczensky, P., Staniša, C., Čop, J., Gossow, H., 1995. Luchs – Telemetrieprojekt Kocevska, Slowenien. Abschlussbericht des Projektes, 24 pp.

Jonozovič, M., 2004. Monitoring pojavljanja risa v Sloveniji. In Kos I. (ed.): Lynx in Slovenia, background documents for conservation and management. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 133–140. (in Slovenian with English summary)

Koren, I., Jonozovič, M., Kos, I., 2006. Status and distribution of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) in Slovenia in 2000–2004 and comparison with the year 1995–1999. Acta Biol. Slov., 49(1), 27–41. Kos, I., Potočnik, H., Skrbinšek, T., Skrbinšek Majić, A., Jonozovič, M., Krofel, M., 2004. Lynx in Slovenia, background documents for conservation and management. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 1–239. (in Slovenian with English summary) DOI: https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.49.1.14753

Kos, I., Potočnik, H., Krofel, M., Kljun, F., Skrbinšek, T., Jelenčič, M., Marinčič, A., Ražen, N., 2011. Ugotavljanje stanja populacije evrazijskega risa (Lynx lynx) v Sloveniji z uporabo GPS teleme- trije. Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, neobjavljeno poročilo za Agencijo Republike Slovenije za Okolje, 32 pp.

Krofel, M., 2006. Predation and feeding habits of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Slovenian Dinaric mountains. Graduation thesis. Ljubljana, Oddelek za biologijo, Biotehniška fakulteta. Univerza v Ljubljani: 100 pp. (in Slovenian)

Krofel, M., 2008. Možnosti monitoringa s pomočjo vonjalnih količkov. Projekt DinaRis, končno poročilo. Ljubljana, Oddelek za biologijo, Biotehniška fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani: 16 pp.

Krofel, M., Potočnik, H., Skrbinšek, T., Kos, I., 2006. Movement and predation patterns of eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) on Menišija and Logatec plateau (Slovenia). Vet. nov. 32 (1/2), 11–17. (in Slovenian)

Krofel, M., Skrbinsek, T., Kos, I., 2012. Use of GPS location clusters analysis to study predation, feeding, and maternal behavior of the Eurasian lynx. Ecol. Res. , on line: DOI10.1007/s11284- 012-1005-x, 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-012-1005-x

Linnel, J.D.C., Fiske, P., Herfindal, I., Odden, J., Broseth, H., Andersen, R., 2007. An evaluation of structured snow-track surveys to monitor Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) populations. Wildlife Biol. 13, 456–466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[456:AEOSSS]2.0.CO;2

Marn, A., 2008. Zapisnik seje Strokovne komisije za podporo pri načrtovanju upravljanja z velikimi zvermi v zvezi z izdelavo Strokovnega mnenje za odstrel velikih zveri v letu 2008. Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor; http://www.mko.gov.si/fileadmin/mko.gov.si/pageuploads/podrocja/velike_zveri/ zapisnik_komisije_odstrel_zveri_08.pdf

Mikusiński, G., Angelstam, P., 2004. Occurrence of mammals and birds with different ecological characteristics in relation to forest cover in Europe – do macroecological data make sense? Ecol. Bull., 51, 265–275.

Molinari-Jobin, A., Kos, I., Marboutin, E., Molinari, P., Wölfl, S., Fasel, M., Blažič, M., Breiten- moser- Würsten, Ch., Fuxjäger , Ch., Huber, T., Koren, I., 2010a. Expansion of lynx in the Alps. KORA-Ber., 50, pp. 1–17.

Molinari-Jobin, A., Marboutin, E., Wölf, S., Wölf, M., Molinari. P., Fasel, M., Kos, I., Blažič, M., Breitenmoser-Würsten, Ch., Fuxjäger, Ch., Huber, T., Koren, I., Breitenmoser, U., 2010b. Recovery of the Alpine lynx (Lynx lynx) metapopulation. Oryx, 44 (2), 267–275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309991013

Molinari-Jobin, A., Kéry, M., Marboutin, E., Molinari, P., Koren, I., Fuxjäger, C., Breitenmoser- Würsten, Ch., Wölf, S., Fasel, M., Kos, I., Wölf, M., Breitenmoser, U., 2012a. Monitoring in the presence of species misidentification: the case of the Eurasian lynx in the Alps. Animal Conserv., 15, 266–273. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-1795.2011.00511.x

Molinari-Jobin, A., Wölfl, S., Marboutin, E., Molinari, P., Wölfl, M., Kos, I., Fasel, M., Koren, I., Fuxjäger, Ch., Breitenmoser-Würsten, Ch., Huber, T., Blažič, M., Breitenmoser, U., 2012b. Moni- toring the Lynx in the Alps. Hystrix, 23(1), 49–53.

Niedziałkowskaa, M., Jedrzejewski, W.. Mysłajek, R.W, Nowak, S., Jedrzejewska, B., Schmidt, K., 2006. Environmental correlates of Eurasian lynx occurrence in Poland–Large scale census and GIS mapping. Biol. Conserv., 133, 63– 69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2006.05.022

Poličnik, H., Triglav Brežnik, G., Al Sayegh Petkovšek, S., Flis, J., Zaluberšek, M., Vidmar, M., Pokorny, B., 2010. Assessment of effectiveness of achieved measures for the crossing of wild- life on the Motorway Kronovo–Smednik. 10. slovenski kongres o cestah in prometu, Portorož, 20.–22. oktobra 2010, 907–919.

Polanc, P., 2012. Population genetic of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx L.) from Slovenia. Dissertation, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, 155 pp. (in Slovenian with English summary) Potočnik, H., 2004. Modeli razvoja dinarske populacije risa. In: Kos I. (ed.): Lynx in Slovenia,

background documents for conservation and management. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 118–129. (in Slovenian with English summary)

Potočnik, H., Skrbinšek, T., Kos, I., 2009. The reintroduced Dinaric lynx population in PVA simulation: the 30 years retrospection and the future viability. Acta Biol. Slov., 52(1), 3–18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.52.1.15135

Røskaft, E., Händel, B., Bjerke, T., Kaltenborn, B.P. 2007: Humanattitudes towards large carnivores in Norway. Wildlife Biol., 13, 172–185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[172:HATLCI]2.0.CO;2

Ryser-Degiorgis, M.P., 2001. Todesursachen und Krankheiten beim Luchs – eine Übersicht. KORA Bericht Nr, 8, pp. 1–19.

Ryser-Degiorgis, M.-P., Ryser, A., Obexer-Ruf, G., Breitenmoser-Wuersten, Ch., Breitenmoser, U., Lang, J., 2004. Emergence of congenital malformations in free-ranging Lynx from Switzerland: first evidence of inbreeding depression? European Association of Zoo- and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWY), 307–311.

Saether B. E., Engen S., Odden J., Linnell J.D.C., Grotan V., Andren H., 2011. Sustainable harvest strategies forage-structured Eurasian lynx populations: the use of reproductive value. Biol. Con- serv., 143, 1970–1979. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2010.04.048

Samelius, G., H. Andrén, O.Liberg, J.D.C.Linnell, J.Odden, P. Ahlqvist, P.Segerström, K.Sköld, 2011. Spatial and temporal variation in natal dispersal by Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. J. Zool., on line doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00857.x, 1–11. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00857.x

Schmidt, K., Kowalcyk, R., 2006. Using scent marking stations to collect hair samples to monitor Eurasian lynx populations. Wildlife Soc. B., 34, 462–466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2193/0091-7648(2006)34[462:USSTCH]2.0.CO;2

Schmidt, K., Ratkiewicz, M., Konopin M., 2011. The importance of genetic variability and popula- tion differentiation in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) for conservation in the context of habitat and climate change. Mammal Rev., on line: doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00180.x, 1–13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00180.x

Skrbinšek, T., 2004. Model primernega prostora za risa v Sloveniji. In Kos I. (ed.): Lynx in Slovenia, background documents for conservation and management. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 122–147 (in Slovenian with English summary).

Skrbinšek, T., Krofel, M., 2008. Analiza kvalitete habitata, hrana in kompeticija. Projekt DinaRis, končno poročilo. Ljubljana, Oddelek za biologijo, Biotehniška fakulteta, Univerza v Ljubljani: 17 pp.

Skrbinšek, T., Jelenčič, M., Waits, L.P., Potočnik, H., Kos, I., Trontelj, P., 2012. Using a reference population yardstick to calibrate and compare genetic diversity reported in different studies : an example from the brown bear. Heredity, 2012, 109(5), 299–305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2012.42

Slana, D., 2010. Aspects of hunters and the general public towards the possible additional settle- ment of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Slovenia. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Graduation thesis, 89 pp.

Staniša, C., 2004. Lynx Survey Europe 2001 – Slovenia. In: VonArx, M,, Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Zimmermann, F, Breitenmoser, U., (ed.): Status and conservation of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in 2001. KORA Bericht no.19, pp. 184–190.

Staniša, C., Koren, I., Adamič, M., 2001. Situation and distribution of the Lynx (Lynx lynx L.) in Slovenia from 1995–1999. Hystrix, 12(2), 43– 51.

Štrumbelj, C., 1996. Zvečer smo jih spustili na svobodo... Lovec, 79(4), 145–149.

Treves, A., 2009. Hunting for large carnivore conservation. J. Appl. Ecol., 46(6), 1350–1356. Treves, A., Naughton-Treves, L., 1999. Risk and opportunity for humans coexisting with large carnivores. J. Hum. Evol., 36 (3), 275–282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jhev.1998.0268

Zimmermann, F., Vogt, K., Ryser, A., Theus, M., Breitenmoser- Würsten, C., Breitenmoser, U., 2010. Abundanc und Dichte des Luchses im nördlichen Schweizer Jura: Fang-Wiederfang- Schätzung mittels Fotofallen im K-I. KORA Bericht Nr. 51, 1–10.

Downloads

Published

01.12.2012

Issue

Section

Original Research Paper

How to Cite

Kos, I., Koren, I., Potočnik, H., & Krofel, M. (2012). Status and distribution of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Slovenia from 2005 to 2009. Acta Biologica Slovenica, 55(2), 49-63. https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.55.2.15535

Similar Articles

1-10 of 130

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)