Occurrence, toxins and possibilities of control of bloom-forming cyanobacteria of European freshwaters: a review


  • Klara Jarni
  • Tjaša Griessler Bulc
  • Aleksandra Krivograd Klemenčič




algal blooms, cyanobacteria, cyanobacterial control, cyanotoxins, Europe, freshwaters


Blooming of cyanobacteria is a common problem of eutrophic water bodies in Europe and worldwide and can cause severe problems with toxicity, taste and odour of the water. Toxins produced by cyanobacteria (cyanotoxins) are structurally diverse and their effects range from liver damage, including liver cancer, to neurotoxicity and thus they may present a serious threat for drinking water safety.  Cyanobacterial blooms present major challenges for the management of rivers, lakes and reservoirs and are predicted to cause even worse problems in the future due to the climate change associated with global warming, increased availability of light to phytoplankton and rising levels of atmospheric CO2. This paper presents the literature review of occurrence, toxins (along with their effects on human health) and possibilities of control of bloom-forming cyanobacteria.


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Original Research Paper

How to Cite

Jarni, K., Griessler Bulc, T., & Krivograd Klemenčič, A. (2017). Occurrence, toxins and possibilities of control of bloom-forming cyanobacteria of European freshwaters: a review. Acta Biologica Slovenica, 60(1), 3-28. https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.60.1.15666

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