Architectural adaptation in Myriophyllum spicatum L. in a lotic environment: is it caused by current velocity?

Authors

  • Barbara Neuhold
  • Johanna D. Janauer
  • Georg A. Janauer

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.59.2.15874

Keywords:

aquatic macrophytes, water flow velocity, architectural adaptation, Myriophyllum spicatum

Abstract

Little information is available for aquatic plants regarding their architectural response to strong environmental drivers like water flow. We examined architectural variability in Myriophyllum spicatum L. in the short terminal section of a small canal earlier used for inland navigation. This stretch is characterised by decreasing water depth towards a final spill-over construction, which causes increasing current velocity. Visibly different plant beds had developed at three sampling sites, located between the upstream end of the study reach and the end atthe spill-over. This situation bears some resemblance to an experimental flume due to regulated water flow and constant discharge, yet with aquatic plant beds still located in their permanent environment during the whole year. Following this precondition our hypothesis envisaged a close relationship between current velocity and realised plant architecture. Current velocity was measured with an electronic vane device, and representative architectural features of plants were recorded from plant samples at the sites of different flow. Characteristic and significant variation in the architecture of M. spicatum was demonstrated at the sites of different current impact. Regarding other environmental parameters like sediment composition, water chemistry or the effect of shading no influence seems likely expected, as samples were collected across the canal width at each site. The mean values of all architectural parameters of M. spicatum follow the same trend with high significance, regarding the increase in plant length, branching, and the overall dimension of the plant beds, which is in close relationship tothe current velocity at the sampling sites. The few other records available in literature cited in this paper point into the same direction, but these studies were also carried out in the field. In our opinion the clear results may not comply with a final and experimentally generalised relationship between aquatic plant architecture and water flow. But our contribution offers some statistical proof that our hypothesis is not too far from explaining the effects of current velocity, which is one of the main environmental parameters defining aquatic plant growth.

References

Arber, A., 1920. Water plants – A study of aquatic Angiosperms. University Press, Cambridge. 436 pp. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.17150

Barthélémy, D., Caraglio, Y., 2007. Plant architecture: A dynamic, multilevel and comprehensive approach to plant form, structure and ontogeny. Annals of Botany 99, 375-407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcl260

Bornkamm, R., Eggert, A., Küppers, M., Schmid, B., Stöcklin, J., 1991. Liste populationsbiologi- scher relevanter Begriffe. In: Schmid, B., Stöcklin, J. (eds.) Populationsbiologie der Pflanzen. Birkhäuser, Basel. pp.9-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-5637-9_1

Bridge, L.J., Franklin, A., Homer, M.E., 2013. Impact of plant shoot architecture on leaf cooling: a coupled heat and mass transfer model. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 10 (85). DOI: 10.1098/ rsif.2013.0326. http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/85/20130326. Accessed 20160927. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2013.0326

Bruckmüller, E., Bamberger, R., Bamberger, M., Maier-Bruck, F., 2004. Österreich-Lexikon. Verlags- gemeinschaft Österreich-Lexikon, Wien. http://austria-forum.org/af/AEIOU, Accessed 20160927.

Butcher, R.W., 1933. Studies on the ecology of rivers. I. Distribution of macrophytic vegetation in the rivers of Britain. Journal of Ecology, 21, 58-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2255874

Chambers, P.A., Prepas, E.E., Hamilton, H.R., Bothwell, M.L., 1991. Current velocity and its effect on aquatic macrophytes in flowing waters. Ecological Applications, 1, 249-257. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1941754

Casper, S.J., Krausch, H.-D., 1980. Pteridophyta und Anthophyta. 1. Lycopociaceae bis Orchidaceae. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. pp.1-403.

Casper, S.J., Krausch, H.-D., 1981. Pteridophyta und Anthophyta. 2. Saururaceae bis Asteraceae. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart. pp.409-942.

Costes. E., Lauri, P.E., Simon, S., Andrieu, B., 2012. Introduction to plant architecture, its diversity and manipulation in agronomic conditions. INRA, Rennes. https://colloque4.inra.fr/var/epide- miology_canopy_architecture/storage/fckeditor/file/2_Conference_ECA_Costes.pdf. Accessed: 20151022.

Dingkuhn M, Luquet D, Quilot B, de Reffye Ph., 2005. Environmental and genetic control of morphogenesis in crops: towards models simulating phenotypic plasticity. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56, 1–14 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1071/AR05063

Duarte, C.M., Roff, D.A., 1991. Architectural and life history constraints to submersed macrophyte community structure: A simulation study. Aquatic Botany, 42, 15-29 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(91)90102-B

Ford, E.D., 2014. The dynamic relationship between plant architecture and competition. Frontiers in Plant Science, 5, 275. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2014.00275. Accessed 20151022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2014.00275

Gasteiner, I., 2001. GIS-unterstützte Totalinventarisierung der Makrophytenvegetation des Wiener Neustädter Kanals im Spiegel anthropogener Eingriffe. Diploma Thesis, University of Vienna.

Gessner, F., 1955. Hydrobotanik I. Energiehaushalt. VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin. 517pp.

Godin, C., Costes, E., Sinoquet, H., 1999. A method for describing plant architecture which integrates topology and geometry. Annals of Botany, 84, 343-357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.0923

Grosfeld J., Barthélémy D., Brion, C., 1999. Architectural variations of Araucaria araucana (Molina)

K. Koch (Araucariaceae) in its natural habitat. In: Kurmann, M.H., Hemsley, A. R., (eds.) The evolution of plant architecture. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens, pp.109–122.

Haslam, S.M., 1987. River plants in Western Europe. The macrophyte vegetation of watercourses of the European economic community. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 512pp.

Haslam, S.M., 2006. River plants. The macrophyte vegetation of watercourses. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 438pp.

Haslam, S.M., 2013. The waving plants of the river. Forrest Text, Ceredigion. 277pp.

Hrivnák, R., Ot’ahel’ová, H., Kochjarová, J., Pal’ove-Balang, P., 2013. Effect of environmental conditions on species composition of macrophytes – study from two distinct biogeographical regions of Central Europe. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems, 411, 09. DOI: 10.1051/kmae/2013076 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/kmae/2013076

Lange, F., 2003. Von Wien zur Adria. Der Wiener Neustädter Kanal. - Sutton Verlag, Erfurt. 128pp.

Lehmann, A., Castella, E., Lachavanne, J.-B., 1997. Morphological traits and spatial heterogeneity of aquatic plants along sediment and depth gradient in Lake Geneva, Switzerland. Aquatic Botany, 55, 281-299. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3770(96)01078-9

McKenzie-Gopsill, A.G., Lee, E., Lukens, L., Swanton, D.J., 2016. Rapid and early changes in morphology and gene expression in soya been seedlings emerging in the presence of neighbouring weeds. European Weed Research Society, 56, 267-273. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/wre.12207

Puijalon, S., Bouma, T.J., Douady, C., van Groenendael, J., Anten, N. P. R., Martel, E., Bornette, G., 2011. Plant resistance to mechanical stress: evidence of an avoidance-tolerance trade-off. New Phytologist, 191, 1141-1149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03763.x

Reinhardt, D., Kuhlemeier, C., 2002. Plant architecture. EMBO Rep. 3, 846-851. Sculthorpe, C.D., 1967. The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Edward Arnold, London. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/embo-reports/kvf177

Stein, W.E., Boyer, J.S. 2006. Evolution of land plant architecture: beyond the telome theory. Palae- obiology, 32, 450-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1666/04036.1

The Plant List, 2010. Version 1. http://www.theplantlist.org/

Untersteiner, H., 2007. Statistik – Datanauswertung mit EXCEL und SPSS. 2nd Issue. Facultas.wuv – Universitätsverlag, Wien.

Wegleiter, I., 1990. Vertikale Biomasseverteilung, Struktur und Lichtverhältnisse homogener Makro- phytenbestände in Südtiroler Seen. PhD-thesis, Vienna.

Whitton , B.A., 1975. River Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford. p. 107ff. Winona, 2015. Plant Ecology – Chapter 7. https://www.google.com/search?q=winona+Chapter+7&ie=utf8&oe=utf-8#q=winona+university+Plant+Ecology+Chapter+7. Accessed: 20151022.

Wolfe, L.M. , Mazer, S.J., 2005. Responses to environmental heterogeneity: fitness consequences of phenotypic stability vs. sensitivity in wild radish (Raphanus sativus: Brassicaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences, 166, 631-640. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/430194

Downloads

Published

01.12.2016

Issue

Section

Original Research Paper

How to Cite

Neuhold, B., D. Janauer, J., & A. Janauer, G. (2016). Architectural adaptation in Myriophyllum spicatum L. in a lotic environment: is it caused by current velocity?. Acta Biologica Slovenica, 59(2), 73-87. https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.59.2.15874

Similar Articles

1-10 of 59

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.