Characteristics of spatial use and importance of landscape features for recovering populations of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx)

Authors

  • Hubert Potočnik
  • Jaka Črtalič
  • Ivan Kos
  • Tomaž Skrbinšek

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.63.2.15938

Keywords:

connectivity, conservation management, dispersal, Eurasian lynx, fragmentation, habitat suitability, home range, Lynx lynx

Abstract

Following the extirpation from Central and Southeastern Europe by the end of the 19th  century, Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) was reintroduced in the Alps and Dinarics. The recovering population sizes fluctuated over the years; however, they remained relatively small and isolated since their distribution after the establishment has not significantly expanded by natural colonization. One of the most radical changes to the landscape of Europe over the past centuries has been the creation of vast urban and agricultural areas and subsequent extension of infrastructure, causing increasingly fragmented landscape, especially for weak dispersers like lynx. There is a pressing need to establish greater connectivity between the genetically isolated populations, particularly throughout the Alps and Dinarics, to achieve a viable metapopulation structure. In the paper, we review scientific knowledge on Eurasian lynx spatial requirements and behaviour, and critically evaluate the methods used. Apart from habitat suitability and connectivity studies, we also provide a review of lynx home range sizes and movement activity, including dispersion. We present habitat suitability model constructed to examine suitable habitat for recovering Dinaric - SE Alpine population and compare home range sizes of lynx from Dinarics in Slovenia with other lynx populations in Europe. Future considerations for lynx conservation should include the impact of climate change, protection of corridor areas, reducing impact of barriers and, if needed, “complement” dispersal via translocations to achieve viable pan-European lynx metapopulation in the future.

References

Andren, H., 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review. Oikos, 71 (3), 355-366. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3545823

Apollonio, M., Andersen, R., Putman, R., (Eds.), 2010. European ungulates and their management in the 21st century. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 604.

Becker, T., 2013. Modelling Eurasian lynx distribution and estimation of patch and population size in the Alps. Master thesis. University of London, London, United Kingdom.

Beier, P., 1995. Dispersal of juvenile cougars in fragmented habitat. The Journal of Wildlife Manage- ment, 59 (2), 228-237. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3808935

Bell, W.J., 1990. Searching behavior patterns in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 35, 447-67. Beniston, M., Keller, F., Koffi, B., Goyette S., 2003. Estimates of snow accumulation and volume in the Swiss Alps under changing climate conditions. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 76, 125- 140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-003-0016-5

Bernhart, F., 1990. Untersuchungen des Aktivitätsmusters des Luchses (Lynx lynx) in der Schweiz: Experimente und Felduntersuchungen. Doctoral dissertation. University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Boyce, M.S., Vernier, P.R., Nielsen, S.E., Schmiegelow, F.K., 2002. Evaluating resource selection functions. Ecological Modelling, 157 (2-3), 281-300. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(02)00200-4

Breitenmoser, U., 1998. Large predators in the Alps: the fall and rise of man’s competitors. Biological Conservation, 83 (3), 279-289. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00084-0

Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser-Wuersten, C., Okarma, H., Kaphegyi, T., Kaphegyi-Wallmann, U., Müller, U.M., 2000. Action plan for the conservation of the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Europe. Strasbourg, Council of Europe. Convention on the conservation of European wildlife and natural habitats, 22, 1-83.

Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C. 2001. Die ökologischen und anthropogenen Voraussetzun- gen für die Existenz grosser Beutegreifer in der Kulturlandschaft. Forest Snow and Landscape Research, 76 (1/2), 23-39.

Breitenmoser, U., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Capt, S., Ryser, A., Zimmermann, F., Angst, C., Laass, J., 1999. Lynx management problems in the Swiss Alps. Cat News, 30, 16-18.

Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Obexer-Ruff, G., 2003. Population and conservation genetics of two re-introduced lynx (Lynx lynx) populations in Switzerland-a molecular evaluation 30 years after translocation. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on the Status and Conservation of the Alpine Lynx Population (SCALP), Strasbourg, France, 7-9.

Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Zimmermann, F., Molinari-Jobin, A., Molinari, P., Capt, S., Vandel, J. M., Breitenmoser, U., 2007. Spatial and social stability of a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population: an assessment of 10 years of observation in the Jura Mountains. Wildlife Biology, 13 (4), 365-380. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[365:SASSOA]2.0.CO;2

Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Zimmermann, F., Ryser, A., Capt, S., Laass, J., Siegenthaler, A., Breitenmo- ser, U., 2001. Untersuchungen zur Luchspopulation in den Nordwestalpen der Schweiz 1997-2000. Kora Bericht, 9, 92.

Brotons, L., Thuiller, W., Araújo, M.B., Hirzel, A.H., 2004. Presence-absence versus presence-only modelling methods for predicting bird habitat suitability. Ecography, 27 (4), 437-448. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2004.03764.x

Bufka, L., Cerveny, J., Koubek, P., Horn, P. 2000. Radiotelemetry research of the lynx (Lynx lynx) in Šumava: preliminary results. In: Proceedings Predatori v Myslivosti. Czech Forestry Society, Praga, Czech Republic, 143-153.

Burgman, M.A., Fox, J.C., 2003. Bias in species range estimates from minimum convex polygons: implications for conservation and options for improved planning. Animal Conservation, 6 (1), 19-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1367943003003044

Buskirk, S.W., McDonald, L.L., 1989. Analysis of variability in home range size of the American marten. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 53 (4), 997-1004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3809601

Cagnacci, F., Boitani, L., Powell, R.A., Boyce, M.S., 2010. Animal ecology meets GPS-based radiote- lemetry: a perfect storm of opportunities and challenges. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences, 365 (1550), 2157-2162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0107

Campbell, V., Strobeck, C., 2006. Fine-scale genetic structure and dispersal in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) within Alberta, Canada. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 84 (8), 1112-1119. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/z06-099

Chapron, G., Kaczensky, P., Linnell, J.D.C., von Arx, M., Huber, D., Andrén, H., Jerina, K., Kos, I., Krofel, M., Majić Skrbinšek, A., Potočnik, H., Skrbinšek, T., … Anders, O., 2014. Recovery of large carnivores in Europe’s modern human-dominated landscapes. Science, 346 (6216), 1517-1519. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1257553

Clarke, A.L., Sæther, B.E., Røskaft, E., 1997. Sex biases in avian dispersal: a reappraisal. Oikos, 79 (3), 429-438. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3546885

Clobert, J., Wolff, J.O., 2001. Introduction. In: Clobert, J., Danchin, E., Dhondt, A. A., Nichols, J. D. (eds.): Dispersal. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 17 - 21.

Čop, J., Frkovic, A., 1998. The re-introduction of the lynx in Slovenia and its present status in Slovenia and Croatia. Hystrix, 10 (1), 65-76.

Cooper, W.S., Kaplan, R.H., 1982. Adaptive “coin-flipping”: a decision-theoretic examination of natural selection for random individual variation. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 94 (1), 135-151. Curio, E., 1976. The ethology of predation. Zoophysiology and ecology (Vol.7). Springer-Verlag, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(82)90336-8

Berlin - New York, pp. 250.

Danchin, E., Heg, D., Doligez. B., 2001. Public information and breeding habitat selection. In: Clobert, J., Danchin, E., Dhondt, A. A., Nichols, J. D. (eds): Dispersal. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 243-258.

Dobson, F.S., 1982. Competition for mates and predominant juvenile male dispersal in mammals. Animal Behaviour, 30 (4), 1183-1192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(82)80209-1

Elith, J., Leathwick, J.R., 2009. Species distribution models: ecological explanation and prediction across space and time. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 40, 677-697. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120159

Ferguson, J.W.H., Galpin, J.S., Wet, M.D., 1988. Factors affecting the activity patterns of black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas. Journal of Zoology, 214 (1), 55-69. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.1988.tb04986.x

Ferreras, P., Delibes, M., Palomares, F., Fedriani, J.M., Calzada, J., Revilla, E., 2004. Dispersal in the Iberian lynx: factors affecting the start, duration, distance and dispersal success. Behavioural Ecology, 15, 31-40.

Fuller, A.K., Harrison, D.J., 2010. Movement paths reveal scale-dependent habitat decisions by Canada lynx. Journal of Mammalogy, 91 (5), 1269-1279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1644/10-MAMM-A-005.1

Gehrig-Fasel, J., Guisan, A., Zimmermann, N.E., 2007. Tree line shifts in the Swiss Alps: Climate change or land abandonment? Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 571-582. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2007.tb02571.x

Graf, R.F., Bollmann, K., Sachot, S., Suter, W. Bugmann, H., 2006. On the generality of habitat distribution models: a case study of capercaillie in three Swiss regions. Ecography, 29, 319-328. Greenwood, P.J., 1980. Mating systems, philopatry and dispersal in birds and mammals. Animal Behaviour, 28 (4), 1140-1162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2006.0906-7590.04328.x

Gompper, M. E., Gittleman, J.L., 1991. Home range scaling: intraspecific and comparative trends. Oecologia, 87, 343-348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00634589

Guarino, F., 2002. Spatial ecology of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus varius (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Zoology (London), 258, 449-457. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836902001607

Guisan, A., Zimmermann, N.E., 2000. Predictive habitat distribution models in ecology. Ecological Modelling, 135 (2-3), 147-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00354-9

Guisan, A., Tingley, R., Baumgartner, J.B., Naujokaitis-Lewis, I., Sutcliffe, P.R., Tulloch, A.I.T., Regan, T.J., Brotons, J., McDonald-Madden, E., Mantyka-Pringle, C., Martin, T.G., Rhodes, J.R., Maggini, R., Setterfield, S.A., Elith, J., Schwartz, M.W., Wintle, B.A., Broennimann, O., Austin, M., Ferrier, S., Kearney, M.R., Possingham, H.P., Buckley, Y.M., 2013. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecology Letters, 16 (12), 1424-1435. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12189

Hagan, J.M., Vander Haegen, W.M., McKinley, P.S., 1996. The early development of forest fragmen- tation effects on birds. Conservation Biology, 10 (1), 188-202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1996.10010188.x

Haglund, B., 1966. Winter habits of the lynx (Lynx lynx L.) and wolverine (Gulo gulo L.) as revealed by tracking in the snow. Viltrevy, 4, 81-229.

Haller, H Breitenmoser, U., 1986. Zur Raumorganisation der in den Schweizer Alpen wiederangesie- delten Population des Luchses Lynx lynx. Zeitschrift fuer Saeugetierkunde, 51 (5), 289-311.

Hanski, I., 1999. Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press. New York, USA, pp. 324.

Hanski, I., Moilanen, A., Gyllenberg, M., 1996. Minimum viable metapopulation size. The American Naturalist, 147 (4), 527-541. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1086/285864

Herfindal, I., Linnell, J. D., Odden, J., Nilsen, E. B., Andersen, R., 2005. Prey density, environmental productivity and home range size in the Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Journal of Zoology, 265 (1), 63-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836904006053

Hirzel, A., 2001. Linking landscape-and population ecology for large population management modelling: the case of Ibex (Capra ibex) in Switzerland. Doctoral dissertation. Université de Lausanne,

Faculté des sciences, Switzerland.

Hirzel, A.H., Helfer, V., Metral, F., 2001. Assessing habitat-suitability models with a virtual species. Ecological Modelling, 145 (2-3), 111-121. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3800(01)00396-9

Hirzel, A.H., Le Lay, G., Helfer, V., Randin, C., Guisan, A., 2006. Evaluating the ability of habitat suitability models to predict species presences. Ecological Modelling, 199 (2), 142-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.05.017

Iuell, B., Bekker, G.J., Cuperus, R., Dufek, J., Fry, G., Hicks, C., Hlavác, V., Keller, V.B., Rosell, C., Sangwine, T., Tørsløv, N., Wandall, Maire, B. (Eds.), 2003. Wildlife and Traffic: A European Handbook for Identifying Conflicts and Designing Solutions. Habitat Fragmentation due to Transportation Infrastructure. COST 341.

Janečka, J.E., Blankenship, T.L., Hirth, D.H., William Kilpatrick, C., Tewes, M.E., Grassman, L.I., 2007. Evidence for male-biased dispersal in bobcats Lynx rufus using relatedness analysis. Wildlife Biology, 13 (1), 38-47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[38:EFMDIB]2.0.CO;2

Jędrzejewski, W., Nowak, S., Schmidt, K., Jędrzejewska, B., 2002. The wolf and the lynx in Poland— results of a census conducted in 2001. Kosmos, 51 (4), 491-499.

Jędrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Miłkowski, L., Jędrzejewska, B., Okarma, H., 1993. Foraging by lynx and its role in ungulate mortality: the local (Białowieża Forest) and the Palaearctic viewpoints. Acta Theriologica, 38 (4), 385-403. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.93-30

Jonsson, S., 1984. Lodjurets jakt och sociala liv. Zool. Ti., 1, 28-34. [In Swedish]

Kaczensky, P., Chapron, G., von Arx, M., Huber, H., Andrén, H., Linnell, J., 2003. Status, management and distribution of large carnivores - bear, lynx, wolf and wolverine in Europe. Report. European Comission, pp. 72.

Kramer-Schadt, S., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., Breitenmoser, U., 2004. Fragmented landscapes, road mortality and patch connectivity: modelling influences on the dispersal of Eurasian lynx. Journal of Applied Ecology, 41 (4), 711-723. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-8901.2004.00933.x

Krofel, M., Huber, D., Kos, I., 2011. Diet of Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in the northern Dinaric Mountains (Slovenia and Croatia). Acta Theriologica, 56 (4), 315-322. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13364-011-0032-2

Krofel, M., Skrbinšek, T., Kos, I., 2013. Use of GPS location clusters analysis to study predation, feeding, and maternal behavior of the Eurasian lynx. Ecological Research, 28 (1), 103-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-012-1005-x

Kvam, T., 1991. Reproduction in the European lynx, Lynx lynx. Zeitschrift fur Saugetierkunde, 56, 146-158.

Levins, R., 1970. Extinction. In: Gerestenhaber, M. (ed.): Some Mathematical Problems in Biology. American Mathematical Society, Providence, Rhode Island, USA, pp. 75-107.

Linnell, J.D.C., Andersen, R., Kvam, T., Andren, H., Liberg, O., ́Odden, J., Moa, P.F., 2001. Home range size and choice of management strategy for lynx in Scandinavia. Environmental Management 27 (6), 869-879. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s002670010195

Linnell, J.D., Trouwborst, A., Boitani, L., Kaczensky, P., Huber, D., Reljic, S., Hayward, M.W., 2016. Border security fencing and wildlife: the end of the transboundary paradigm in Eurasia? PLoS Biology, 14 (6), e1002483. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002483

Macdonald, D.W., Johnson, D.D.P., 2001. Dispersal in theory and practice: consequences for conser- vation biology. In: Clobert, J., Danchin, E., Dhondt, A.A., Nichols, J.D. (eds.): Dispersal. Oxford University Press, New York, 358-372.

Maehr, D.S., Land, E.D., Shindle, D.B., Bass, O.L., Hoctor, T.S., 2002. Florida panther dispersal and conservation. Biological Conservation, 106 (2), 187-197. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00245-2

Magg, N., Müller, J., Heibl, C., Hackländer, K., Wölfl, S., Wölfl, M., Heurich, M., 2016. Habitat availability is not limiting the distribution of the Bohemian-Bavarian lynx Lynx lynx population. Oryx, 50 (4), 742-752. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605315000411

Mladenoff, D.J., Sickley, T.A., Haight, R.G., Wydeven, A.P., 1995. A regional landscape analysis and prediction of favorable gray wolf habitat in the northern Great Lakes region. Conservation Biology, 9 (2), 279-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1995.9020279.x

Mohr, C.O., 1947. Table of equivalent populations of North American small mammals. The American Midland Naturalist, 37 (1), 223-249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2421652

Molinari, P., Molinari-Jobin, A., 2001. Behavioural observations of interactions in a free-ranging lynx Lynx lynx family at kills. Acta Theriologica, 46, 441-445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.01-49

Molinari-Jobin, A., Marboutin, E., Wölfl, S., Wölfl, M., Molinari, P., Fasel, M., Huber, T., 2010. Re- covery of the Alpine lynx Lynx lynx metapopulation. Oryx, 44 (2), 267-275. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605309991013

Molinari-Jobin, A., Molinari, P., Breitenmoser-Wuersten, C.H., Woelel, M., Staniša, C., Fasel, M., Stahl, P., Vandel, J.M., Rotelli, L., Kaczensky, P., Huber, T., Adamič, M., Koren, I., Breitenmoser, U., 2001. Pan-Alpine Conservatin Strategy for the lynx. SCALP, Council of Europe, pp. 19.

Molinari-Jobin, A., Molinari, P., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Wölfl, M., Stanisa, C., Fasel, M., Stahl, P., Vandel, J.M., Rotelli, L., Kaczensky, P., Huber, T., Adamic, M., Koren, M., Breitenmoser, U., 2003. The pan-alpine conservation strategy for the lynx. Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) Nature and environment, No. 130. Council of Europe Publishing, pp. 24.

Morrison, M.L., Marcot, B., Mannan, W., 2012. Wildlife-habitat relationships: concepts and applications. Island Press, Washington, DC., USA, pp. 54.

Mowat, G.K, Poole, E., O’Donoghue, M., 2000. Ecology of lynx in northern Canada and Alaska. In: Ruggiero, L.F. et al. (eds.): Ecology and conservation of lynx in the United States. University Press of Colorado, Boulder, USA, 265-306.

Mowat, G., Slough, B.G., 1998. Some observations on the natural history and behaviour of the Canada lynx, Lynx canadensis. Canadian Field-Naturalist, 112 (1), 32-36.

Murray, D.L., Boutin, S., 1991. The influence of snow on lynx and coyote movements: does morphology affect behavior? Oecologia, 88 (4), 463-469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00317707

O’Donoghue, M., Boutin, S., Krebs, C.J., Hofer, E.J., 1997. Numerical responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Oikos, 80, 150-162. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3546526

O’Donoghue, M., Boutin, S., Krebs, C.J., Zuleta, G., Murray, D.L., Hofer, E.J., 1998. Functional responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Ecology, 79 (4), 1193-1208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[1193:FROCAL]2.0.CO;2

Okarma, H., Jedrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Kowalczyk, R., Jedrzejewska, B., 1997. Predation of Eurasian lynx on roe deer and red deer in Białowieża Primeral Forest, Poland. Acta Theriologica, 42 (2), 203-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.97-22

Potočnik, H., Skrbinšek, T., Kos, I., 2009. The reintroduced Dinaric lynx population dynamics in PVA simulation: the 30 years retrospection and the future viability. Acta Biologica Slovenica, 52 (1), 3-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.52.1.15135

Potočnik, H., Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, S., De Angelis, D., Huber, Đ., Jerina, K., Kusak, J., Mavec, M., Pokorny, B., Reljić, S., Rodriguez R., M., Skrbinšek, T., Vivoda, B., 2019a. Handbook for integrating the bear habitat suitability and connectivity to spatial planning: prepared within the framework of the Life Dinalp Bear project. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 66.

Potočnik, H., Pokorny, B., Flajšman, K., Kos, I., 2019b. Evrazijski šakal. Zlatorogova knjižnica 42.

Lovska zveza Slovenije, Ljubljana, Slovenia, pp. 248.

Pulliainen E., Hyypiä V., 1975. Winter food and feeding habits of lynx (Lynx lynx) in south-eastern Finland. Suomen Riista, 26, 60-63.

Pulliainen E., Lindgren E., Tunkkari P.S., 1995. Influence of food availability and reproductive status on the diet and body condition of the European lynx in Finland. Acta Theriologica, 40 (2), 181-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.95-19

Ripple, W.J., Estes, J.A., Beschta, R.L., Wilmers, C.C., Ritchie, E.G., Hebblewhite, M., Schmitz, O.J., 2014. Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science, 343 (6167), 1241-1248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1241484

Ryser, A., Von Wattenwyl, K., Ryser-Degiorgis, M.P., Willisch, C., Zimmermann, F., Breitenmoser, U. 2004. Luchsumsiedlung Nordostschweiz 2001-2003, Schlussbericht Modul Luchs des Projektes LUNO. Muri bei Bern. KORA Bericht. 22, 1-60.

Samelius, G., Andrén, H., Liberg, O., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J., Ahlqvist, P., Sköld, K., 2012. Spatial and temporal variation in natal dispersal by Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia. Journal of Zoology, 286 (2), 120-130. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00857.x

Sandell, M., 1989. The mating tactics and spacing behaviour of solitary carnivores. In: Gittleman, J.L. (ed.): Carnivore behavior, ecology and evolution. Cornell University Press, New York, USA, 164-182. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-4716-4_7

Schadt, S.A., 2002. Scenarios assessing the viabililty of a lynx population in Germany. Szenarien für eine lebensfähige Luchspopulation in Deutschland. Doctoral dissertation. Technisches Univeritat München, Germany.

Schadt, S., Revilla, E., Wiegand, T., Knauer, F., Kaczensky, P., Breitenmoser, U., 2002. Assessing the suitability of central European landscapes for the reintroduction of Eurasian lynx. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39 (2), 189-203. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00700.x

Schmidt, K., 1998. Maternal behaviour and juvenile dispersal in the Eurasian lynx. Acta Theriologica, 43, 391-408. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.98-50

Schmidt, K., Jedrzejewski, W., Okarma, H., 1997. Spatial organization and social relations in the Eu- rasian lynx population in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Acta Theriologica, 42 (3), 289-312. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4098/AT.arch.97-30

Schmidt, K., 1999. Variation in daily activity of the free-living Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Zoology, 249 (4), 417-425. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836999009851

Schwartz, M.W., 1999. Choosing the appropriate scale of reserves for conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 30, 83-108. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.83

Sellers, P.J., Dickinson, R.E., Randall, D.A., Betts, A.K., Hall, F.G., Berry, J.A., Collatz, G.J., Denning, A.S., Mooney, H.A., Nobre, C.A., Sato, N., Field, C.B., Henderson-Sellers, A., 1997. Modeling the exchanges of energy, water, and carbon between continents and the atmosphere. Science, 275, 502-509. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.275.5299.502

Shields, W.M., 1982. Philopatry, inbreeding, and the evolution of sex. SUNY press. New York, USA, pp. 245.

Signer, J., 2010. Distribution and Connectivity of Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) in the Alps. ECONNECT, Austrian Environmental Agency, Vienna, Austra, pp 14.

Skrbinšek, T., 2004. Model primernega prostora za risa v Sloveniji. eng. Lynx in Slovenia, background documents for conservation and management. University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Lju- bljana, Slovenia, 122-147.

Smith, J.L.D., 1993. The role of dispersal in structuring the Chitwan tiger population. Behaviour, 124, 165-195. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156853993X00560

Staniša, C., Huber, T., 1997. Kolikšen je življenjski prostor največje evropske mačke? LZS, Ljubljana, Lovec, 80, 59-61.

Stahl, P., Vandel, J.M., Ruette, S., Coat, L., Coat, Y., Balestra, L., 2002. Factors affecting lynx predation on sheep in the French Jura. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39 (2), 204-216. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2664.2002.00709.x

Stenseth, N.C., Shabbar, A., Chan, K.S., Boutin, S., Rueness, E.K., Ehrich, D., Jakobsen, K.S., 2004. Snow conditions may create an invisible barrier for lynx. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101 (29), 10632-10634. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0308674101

Stroganov, S.U., 1962. Mammals of Siberia. Carnivore. Izdatelstvo AN USSR, Moscow, Russia [In Russian].

Tracey, J.A., Zhu, J., Boydston, E., Lyren, L., Fisher, R.N., Crooks, K.R., 2013. Mapping behavioral landscapes for animal movement: a finite mixture modeling approach. Ecological Applications, 23 (3), 654-669. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/12-0687.1

Zimmermann, F., 2003. Lynx habitat fragmentation of the Alps-a preliminary model. In: Molinari-Jobin, A. (ed.): 2nd SCALP Conference, Amden, 7-9 May 2003.

Zimmermann, F., 2004. Conservation of the Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx) in a fragmented landscape- habitat models, dispersal and potential distribution. Doctoral dissertation. Université de Lausanne, Faculté de biologie et medicine, Switzerland.

Zimmermann, F., Breitenmoser, U., 2007. Potential distribution and population size of the Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx in the Jura Mountains and possible corridors to adjacent ranges. Wildlife Biology, 13 (4), 406-416. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2981/0909-6396(2007)13[406:PDAPSO]2.0.CO;2

Zimmermann, F., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Breitenmoser, U., 2005. Natal dispersal of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) in Switzerland. Journal of Zoology, 267 (4), 381-395. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952836905007545

Zimmermann, F., Breitenmoser-Würsten, C., Breitenmoser, U., 2007. Importance of dispersal for the expansion of a Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx population in a fragmented landscape. Oryx, 41 (3), 358-368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0030605307000712

Zollner, P.A., Lima, S.L., 1997. Landscape-level perceptual abilities in white-footed mice: perceptual range and the detection of forested habitat. Oikos, 80, 51-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3546515

Wandeler, P., 2004. Spatial and temporal population genetics of Swiss red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) fol- lowing a rabies epizootic. Doctoral dissertation. Cardiff University, Wales, UK.

Waser, P.M., Strobeck, C., Paetkau, D., 2001. Estimating interpopulation dispersal rates. In: Gittleman, J.L., Funk, S.M., Macdonald, D.W., Wayne K. (eds.): Carnivore conservation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 484-497.

White, S., Briers, R.A., Bouyer, Y., Odden, J., Linnell, J.D.C., 2015. Eurasian lynx natal den site and ma- ternal home-range selection in multi-use landscapes of Norway. Journal of Zoology, 297 (2), 87-98. Wiens, J.A. 1997. The emerging role of patchiness in conservation biology. In: Pickett, S.T.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Shachak, M., Likens, G.E. (eds.): The ecological basis for conservation: heterogeneity, ecosystems, and biodiversity. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA, pp. 93–107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jzo.12260

Wiens, J.A., 2001. The landscape context of dispersal. In: Clobert, J., Danchin, E., Dhondt, A.A., Nichols, J.D. (eds.): Dispersal. Oxford University Press, New York, USA, 96-109.

Worton, B.J., 1989. Kernel methods for estimating the utilization distribution in home-range studies. Ecology, 70 (1), 164-168. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1938423

Downloads

Published

01.12.2020

How to Cite

Potočnik, H., Črtalič, J., Kos, I., & Skrbinšek, T. (2020). Characteristics of spatial use and importance of landscape features for recovering populations of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx). Acta Biologica Slovenica, 63(2), 65-88. https://doi.org/10.14720/abs.63.2.15938

Similar Articles

1-10 of 52

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)