Hortuli animae iz let 1516 in 1548 v Narodni in univerzitetni knjižnici v Ljubljani: predreformacijski molitvenik in njegova luteranska transformacija


  • Gašper Cerkovnik Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta



Ključne besede:

Hortulus animae, Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica v Ljubljani, lesorezne ilustracije, predreformacijska pobožnost, protestantska pobožnost, Lukas Cranach st., Georg Rhau


The collection of rare prints at the National and University Library of Ljubljana contains two small printed prayer books entitled Hortulus animae. One is from 1516 and the other from 1548, and both are embellished with numerous woodcut illustrations. On closer inspection, the similarities between the booklets soon vanish: the older one belongs to the golden age of pre-Reformation prayer books of the first two decades of the sixteenth century, and the second one to the Reformation. Nevertheless, both examples have so far been ignored by scholars. The Latin prayer book dated 1516 was published in Mainz by Johann Schöfer. It belongs to the important and numerous group of pre-Reformation prayer books, among which Hortulus animae was most successful. This type derives from books of hours, with adjustments to central European devotional practices. Hortulus animae is a compendium of diverse devotional texts designed to equip Christians for every situation in which they might need divine assistance. An important role was also played by numerous illustrations, as proven by some prayers that explicitly demand recitation before a specific image (the prayers of St. Gregory the Great and St. Anne). The importance of these booklets is confirmed by the importance of some of the artists that provided illustrations, such as Albrecht Dürer, Hans Burgkmair the Elder, and Hans Holbein the Younger. The illustrations in the Ljubljana prayer book were all executed by a single master, which was not common for this type of publication. His name and his other works are unknown, although the quality of his woodcuts surpasses many in other series used at this time. The special value of this prayer book also lies in numerous traces left by its owners, the most impressive being the drawing of the coat of arms on the back cover. The second Hortulus animae with German text was published in Wittenberg in 1548 by the important Protestant publisher Georg Rhau. The texts, partly written by Martin Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, show crucial differences from their pre-Reformation predecessor. Although richly illustrated with Lucas Cranach’s pre-Reformation woodcuts for a Wittenberg relics collection book from 1509, their meaning did not remain the same. Luther was very aware of the power of images, specially over the less educated. His teachings are perfectly expressed in this prayer book. The images of saints are limited to Christ’s family, the twelve apostles, and John the Baptist, and several points in the text are equipped with a warning against idolatry. The smaller group of illustrations depicting specific Reformation subjects was contributed by a younger anonymous artist known only by his monogram, A W. Each in its specific historical context, both prayer books are therefore a valuable document of pre-Reformation and Reformation piety in central Europe of the first half of the sixteenth century.


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Biografija avtorja

  • Gašper Cerkovnik , Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta
    Gašper Cerkovnik je kot raziskovalec zaposlen na Oddelku za umetnostno zgodovino Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani, kjer je študiral umetnostno zgodovino in sociologijo kulture in leta 2010 doktoriral iz umetnostne zgodovine. V svojem raziskovalnem delu se posveča umetnosti poznega srednjega in zgodnjega novega veka v Sloveniji in Srednji Evropi ter zgodovini slovenske umetnostne zgodovine.



21. 12. 2011




Kako citirati

Cerkovnik , G. . (2011). Hortuli animae iz let 1516 in 1548 v Narodni in univerzitetni knjižnici v Ljubljani: predreformacijski molitvenik in njegova luteranska transformacija. Ars & Humanitas, 5(2), 123-139. https://doi.org/10.4312/ars.5.2.123-139