Key Noun + Noun Collocations in the Language of Tourism: A Corpus-Based Study of English and Serbian


  • Dragana Vuković Vojnović University of Novi Sad



noun noun collocations, contrastive corpus analysis, custom-made corpora, corpus analysis tools, language of tourism


In this paper, we investigate the main characteristics underlying noun + noun collocations in the English and Serbian language of tourism. Their morpho-syntactic, semantic and communicative features are contrasted and compared in the two languages. Firstly, we compiled two comparable corpora in English and Serbian from the tourism websites of Great Britain and Serbia. Based on their normalized frequencies per 10,000 words, key noun + noun collocations were extracted, using TermoStat Web 3.0 and AntConc. The results showed certain similarities in terms of the prevailing topics in the two corpora, based on the analysis of key noun + noun collocations. However, we found major differences in the two languages in terms of their morpho-syntactic features, communicative focus and the relationship of the collocates. The results of the study have implications for English for Tourism education, tourism discourse studies, language typology and lexicography.


Download data is not yet available.


Ackermann, Kristen, and Yu-Hua Chen. 2013. “Developing the Academic Collocation List (ACL) – A Corpus-Driven and Expert-Judged Approach.” Journal of English for Academic Purposes 12: 235–47.

Bahns, Jens. 1993. “Lexical Collocations – A Contrastive View.” ELT Journal 47 (1): 56–63.

Bhatia, Vijay K. 1993. Analyzing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London: Longman.

—. 2002. “Applied Genre Analysis: A Multi-perspective Model.” Iberica 4: 3–19.

Cobb, Tom, and Alex Boulton. 2015. “Classroom Applications of Corpus Analysis.” In Cambridge Handbook of English Corpus Linguistics, edited by Douglas Biber, and Randi Reppen, 478–94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Coxhead, Averil. 2000. “A New Academic Word List.” TESOL Quarterly 34 (2): 213–38.

Croft, William, and David Alan Cruse. 2004. Cognitive Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Cruse, David Alan. 1986. Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dann, Graham M. S. 1996. The Language of Tourism: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Wallingford: CAB International.

Dignen, Sheila, Jonathan Crowther, and Diana Lea, eds. 2002. Oxford Collocations Dictionary for Students of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Đorđević, Radmila. 1989. Engleski i srpskohrvatski jezik. Kontrastivna gramatika imeničke grupe. Beograd: Naučna knjiga.

Dražić, Jasmina. 2014. Leksičke i gramatičke kolokacije u srpskom jeziku. Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet.

Drouin, Patrick. 2003. “Term Extraction Using Non-Technical Corpora as a Point of Leverage.” Terminology 9 (1): 99–117.

Firth, John Rupert. 1957. “A Synopsis of Linguistic Theory, 1930–1955.” In Studies in Linguistic Analysis, Special Volume of Philological Society, edited by John Rupert Firth et al., 1–32. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Gajšt, Nataša. 2011. “A Glossary-Based Approach to ESP Terminology Acquisition.” Inter Alia 2: 21–41.

Gavioli, Laura. 2005. Exploring Corpora for ESP Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Geeraerts, Dirk. 2010. Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford Linguistics.

Gotti, Maurizio. 2008. Investigating Specialised Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang.

Granger, Sylviane. 1998. “Prefabricated Patterns in Advanced EFL Writing: Collocations and Formulae.” In Phraseology: Theory, Analysis and Applications, edited by Anthony P. Cowie, 145–60. Oxford: Clarendon Press Oxford.

Granger, Sylviane, and Fanny Meunier, eds. 2008. Phraseology. An Interdisciplinary Perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Halliday, M.A.K. 1966. “Lexis as a Linguistic Level.” In In Memory of J.R. Firth, edited by Charles Ernest Bazell, John Cunnison Catford, M. A. K. Halliday, and Robert Henry Robbins, 148–62. London: Longman.

Howarth, Peter Andrew. 1998. “The Phraseology of Learners’ Academic Writing.” In Phraseology. Theory, Analysis, and Applications, edited by Anthony P. Cowie, 161–86. Oxford: Clarendon Press Oxford.

Hyland, Ken, and Feng K. Jiang. 2017. “Is Academic Writing Becoming More Informal?” English for Specific Purposes 45: 40–51.

Jaworski, Adam, and Annette Pritchard. 2005. Discourse, Communication and Tourism. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.

Kang, Ning, and Qiaofeng Yu. 2011. “Corpus-Based Stylistic Analysis of Tourism English.” Journal of Language Teaching and Research 2 (1): 129–36.

Klajn, Ivan. 1978. “O prefiksoidima u srpskohrvatskom jeziku.” Naš jezik XXIII (15): 187–98. Beograd: Institut za srpskohrvatski jezik.

Lam, Peter Y. W. 2007. “A Corpus-Driven Lexico-Grammatical Analysis of English Tourism Industry Texts and the Study of its Pedagogic Implications in English for Specific Purposes.” In Corpora in the Foreign Language Classroom, edited by Encarnacion Hidalgo, Luis Quereda, and Juan Santana, 71–90. Leiden: Brill.

Liu, Jia, and Lina Han. 2015. “A Corpus-Based Environmental Academic Word List Building and its Validity Test.” English for Specific Purposes 39: 1–11.

Maci, Stefania Maria. 2010. The Language of Tourism. Bergamo: CELSB.

McCarten, Jeanne. 2007. Teaching Vocabulary: Lessons from the Corpus, Lessons for the Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McEnery, Tony, and Richard Xiao. 2010. “What Corpora Can Offer in Language Teaching and Learning?” In Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning 2, edited by Eli Hinkel, 364–80. London: Routledge.

Nation, I. S. Paul. 2007. Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nesselhauf, Nadja. 2005. Collocations in a Learner Corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Palmer, E. Harold. 1933. Second Interim Report on English Collocations. Tokyo: Kaitakusha.

Paradiž, Martina. 2021. “CoLecter KIN: Mobile Application for Collaborative Bilingual Glossary Compilation in the ESP Classroom.” ELOPE 18 (1): 91–106.

Prćić, Tvrtko. 2008. Semantika i pragmatika reči. Novi Sad: Zmaj.

Schmitt, Norbert. 2008. Vocabulary in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sinclair, McHardy John. 1966. “Beginning the Study of Lexis.” In In Memory of J. R. Firth, edited by Charles E. Bazell, John Cunnison Catford, M. A. K. Halliday and Robert Henry Robbins, 410–30. London: Longman.

—. 1987. “Collocation: A Progress Report.” In Language Topics: Essays in Honour of Michael Halliday II, edited by Ross Steele and Terry Threadgold, 319–32. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

—. 1991. Corpus, Concordance, Collocation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swales, John M. 1990. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Thurlow, Crispin, and Adam Jaworski. 2010. Tourism Discourse – Language and Global Mobility. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Urry, John. 1995. Consuming Places. London: Routledge.

Van Roey, Jacques. 1990. French-English Contrastive Lexicology. An Introduction. Louvain-la-Neuve: Peeters.

Vuković Vojnović, Dragana. 2011. “‘Low Budget’ and ‘High Season’-Delve into the ‘Vast Ocean’ of Collocations Related to the Language of Tourism.” Primenjena lingvistika danas – između teorije i prakse – Zbornik radova sa Trećeg kongresa, 397–406. Beograd: Društvo za primenjenu lingvistiku Srbije, Filozofski fakultet u Novom Sadu, Filološki fakultet u Beogradu.

—. 2020. “Enhancing ESP Vocabulary Practice with Online Corpus Analysis Tools.” In Contemporary Research in Foreign Language Teaching and Learning, edited by Dana di Pardo Leon Henri and Bhawana Jain, 163–83. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

West, Michael. 1953. A General Service List of English Words. London: Longman.

Xue, Guoyi, and I.S.P. Nation. 1984. “A University Word List.” Language Learning and Communication 3 (2): 215–29.

Corpus – Electronic Sources

Kontiki Travel Agent:

Thomson-Tui Travel Agency:

Tourism Organisation of Great Britain:

Tourism Organisation of Serbia:

Electronic Tools for Corpora Analysis

Anthony, L. 2017. AntConc (Version 3.5.0). Tokyo: Waseda University.

TermoStat Web 3.0.



29. 12. 2021

How to Cite

Vuković Vojnović, D. (2021). Key Noun + Noun Collocations in the Language of Tourism: A Corpus-Based Study of English and Serbian. ELOPE: English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries, 18(2), 51-68.