Diffusion of Phonetic Updates within Phonological Neighborhoods


  • Eva Maria Luef Charles University
  • Pia Resnik University College of Teacher Education Vienna/Krems
  • Tomáš Gráf Charles University




aspiration, Austrian German, Czech, English as a foreign language, lexical competition, minimal pair, phonetic learning, phonological neighborhood


Phonological neighborhood density is known to influence lexical access, speech production and perception processes. Lexical competition is considered the central concept from which the neighborhood effect emanates: highly competitive neighborhoods are characterized by large degrees of phonemic co-activation, which can delay speech recognition and facilitate speech production. The study investigates phonetic learning in English as a foreign language in relation to phonological neighborhood density and onset density to see if dense or sparse neighborhoods are more conducive to the incorporation of novel phonetic detail. Also, the effect of voice-contrasted minimal pairs is explored. The results indicate that sparser neighborhoods with weaker lexical competition provide the most optimal phonological environment for phonetic learning. Moreover, novel phonetic details are incorporated faster in neighborhoods without minimal pairs. The results indicate that lexical competition plays a role in the dissemination of phonetic updates in the lexicon of foreign language learners.


Download data is not yet available.


Abramson, Arthur S., and Douglas H. Whalen. 2017. “Voice Onset Time (VOT) at 50: Theoretical and Practical Issues in Measuring Voicing Distinctions.” Journal of Phonetics 63: 75–86. https://doi.org/10.1016 /j.wocn.2017.05.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.05.002

Adda-Decker, Martine, and Lori Lamel. 2018. “Discovering Speech Reductions across Speaking Styles and Languages.” In Rethinking Reduction: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Conditions, Mechanisms, and Domains for Phonetic Variation, edited by Francesco Cangemi, Meghan Clayards, Oliver Niebuhr, Barbara Schuppler, and Margaret Zeller, 101–28. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110524178-004

Aitchison, Jean 1987. Words in the Mind: An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Allen, Jean S., Joanne L. Miller, and David DeSteno. 2003. “Individual Talker Differences in Voice-Onset-Time.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113 (544). https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1528172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1528172

Ambrožová, Martina. 2014. “English Pronunciation Difficulties among Czech Students: Causes and Compensation Strategies.” Bachelor’s thesis, Tomas Bata University in Zlin.

Baese-Berk, Melissa, and Mathew Goldrick. 2009. “Mechanisms of Interaction in Speech Production.” Language and Cognitive Processes 24 (4): 527–54. https://doi.org/10.1080%2F01690960802299378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01690960802299378

Bard, Ellen G., and Matthew Aylett. 2005. “Referential Form, Word Duration, and Modeling the Listener in Spoken Dialogue.” In Approaches to Studying World-Situated Language Use, edited by John C. Trueswell and Michael K. Tanenhaus, 173–91. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Barr, Dale J., Roger Levy, Christop Scheepers, and Harry J. Tily. 2013. “Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keept It Maximal.” Journal of Memory and Language 68 (3): 255–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001

Bates, Douglas, Martin Maechler, Ben Bolker, and Steven Walker. 2014. “Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using Eigen and S4.” R Package version 1.1-7.

Bauch, Anne, Claudia K. Friedrich, and Ulrike Schild. 2021. “Phonemic Training Modulates Early Speech Processing in Pre-reading Children.” Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.643147

Berry, Jeff, and Maura Moyle. 2011. “Covariation among Vowel Height Effects on Acoustic Measures.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 130: EL 365. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3651095. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.3651095

Boersma, Paul, and David Weenink. 2019. “Praat, http://www.Praat.org (Version 6.0.46).”

Bóna, Judit. 2014. “Voice Onset Time and Speakers’ Age: Data from Hungarian.” Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics 28 (5): 366–72. https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2013.875593. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3109/02699206.2013.875593

Brown, Violet. 2021. “An Introduction to Linear Mixed-Effects Modeling in R.” Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 4 (1). https://doi.org/doi:10.1177/2515245920960351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245920960351

Bürkle, Michael. 1995. “Österreichische Standardaussprache: Vorurteile und Schibboleths.” In Österreichisches Deutsch: Linguistische, sozialpsychologische und sprachpolitische Aspekte einer nationalen Variante des Deutschen, edited by Rudolf Muhr, Richard Schrodt, and Peter Wiesinger, 235–48. Wien: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.

Buz, Esteban, Michael K. Tanenhaus, and T. Florian Jaeger. 2016. “Dynamically Adapted Context-Specific Hyperarticulation: Feedback from Interlocutors Affects Speakers’ Subsequent Pronunciations.” Journal of Memory & Language 89: 68–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.009. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.009

Bybee, Joan. 2002. “Word Frequency and Context of Use in the Lexical Diffusion of Phonetically Conditioned Sound Change.” Language Variation and Change 14 (3): 261–90. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394502143018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394502143018

Castles, Anne, and Max Coltheart. 2004. “Is There a Causal Link from Phonological Awareness to Success in Learning to Read?” Cognition 91 (1): 77–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0010-0277(03)00164-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(03)00164-1

Cho, Taehong, and Peter Ladefoged. 1999. “Variation and Universals in VOT: Evidence from 18 Languages.” Journal of Phonetics 27 (2): 207–29. https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1999.0094. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1999.0094

Cho, Taehong, Douglas H. Whalen, and G. J. Docherty. 2019. “Voice Onset Time and Beyond: Exploring Laryngeal Contrast in 19 Languages.” Journal of Phonetics 72: 52–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2018.11.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2018.11.002

Chodroff, Eleanor, John Godfrey, Sanjeev Khudanpur, and Colin Wilson. 2015. “Structured Variability in Acoustic Realization: A Corpus Study of Voice Onset Time in American English Stops.” Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Accessed November 6, 2022. https://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/groups/BM/phonetics/resources.html#icphs.

Council of Europe. 2018. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Companion Volume with New Descriptors. Accessed November 6, 2022. https://rm.coe.int/cefr-companion-volume-with-new-descriptors-2018/1680787989.

Cutler, Anne, Rebecca Treiman, and Brit van Ooijen. 2010. “Strategic Deployment of Orthographic Knowledge in Phoneme Detection.” Language and Speech 53 (3): 307–20. https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830910371445. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0023830910371445

Damian, Markus, and Jeffrey Bowers. 2003. “Effects of Orthography on Speech Production in a Form-Preparation Paradigm.” Journal of Memory & Language 49: 119–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00008-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(03)00008-1

de Jong, Kenneth, Mary E. Beckman, and Jan Edwards. 1993. “The Interplay between Prosodic Structure and Coarticulation.” Language and Speech 36 (2–3): 197–212. https://doi.org/10.1177/002383099303600305. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002383099303600305

Dobson, Anette J. 2002. An Introduction to Generalized Linear Models. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall / CRC. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420057683

Docherty, Gerard J., Dominic J. L. Watt, Carmen Llamas, Damian J. Hall, and Jennifer Nycz. 2011. “Variation in Voice Onset Time along the Scottish-English Border.” Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 591–4. Accessed November 6, 2022. https://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/groups/BM/phonetics/resources.html#icphs.

Field, Andy. 2005. Discovering Statistics Using SPSS. London: Sage Publications.

Forstmeier, Wolfgang, and Holger Schielzeth. 2011. “Cryptic Multiple Hypotheses Testing in Linear Models: Overestimated Effect Sizes and the Winner’s Curse.” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 65: 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-010-1038-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-010-1038-5

Fox, John, and Georges Monette. 1992. “Generalized Collinearity Diagnostics.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 87 (417): 178–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1992.10475190

Fricke, Melinda D. 2013. “Phonological Encoding and Phonetic Duration.” PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/0q71t6xk.

Friedrich, Claudia K., Verena Felder, Aditi Lahiri, and Carsten Eulitz. 2013. “Activation of Words with Phonological Overlap.” Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00556. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00556

Gahl, Susanne, and Julia F. Strand. 2016. “Many Neighborhoods: Phonological and Perceptual Neighborhood Density in Lexical Production and Perception.” Journal of Memory & Language 89: 162–78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.12.006

Gahl, Susanne, Yao Yao, and Keith Johnson. 2012. “Why Reduce? Phonological Neighborhood Density and Phonetic Reduction in Spontaneous Speech.” Journal of Memory and Language 66 (4): 789–806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2011.11.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2011.11.006

Ganushchak, Lesya Y., and Yiya Chen. 2016. “Incrementality in Planning of Speech during Speaking and Reading Aloud: Evidence from Eye-Tracking.” Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00033. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00033

Goldinger, Stephen D., Paul A. Luce, and David B. Pisoni. 1989. “Priming Lexical Neighbors of Spoken Words: Effects of Competition and Inhibition.” Journal of Memory & Language 28 (5): 501–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596x(89)90009-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(89)90009-0

Goldrick, Matthew, Charlotte Vaughn, and Amanda Murphy. 2013. “The Effects of Lexical Neighbors on Stop Consonant Articulation.” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134: EL172-EL177. https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4812821. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1121/1.4812821

Gráf, Tomáš. 2017. “The Story of the Learner Corpus LINDSEI_CZ.” Studies in Applied Linguistics 8 (2): 22–35.

Haigh, Corinne A., and Debra Jared. 2007. “The Activation of Phonological Representations by Bilinguals while Reading Silently: Evidence from Interlingual Homophones.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 33 (4): 623–44. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0278-7393.33.4.623. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.33.4.623

Jacewicz, Ewa, Robert A. Fox, Caitlin O’Neill, and Joseph Salmons. 2009. “Articulation Rate across Dialect, Age, and Gender.” Language Variation and Change 21 (2): 233–56. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394509990093. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954394509990093

Jessen, Michael, and Catherine Ringen. 2002. “Laryngeal Features in German.” Phonology 19 (2): 189–218. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675702004311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0952675702004311

Kaňok, Martin, and Michal Novotný. 2019. “Effect of Age and Gender on Articulation of Voiced and Voiceless Stop Consonants in Czech.” Lekar a technika – Clinician and Technology 49 (3): 97–101. https://doi.org/10.14311/CTJ.2019.3.05. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14311/CTJ.2019.3.05

Karimi, Hossein, and Michele Diaz. 2020. “When Phonological Neighborhood Density both Facilitates and Impedes: Age of Acquisition and Name Agreement interact with Phonological Neighborhood during Word Production.” Memory & Cognition 48: 1061–72. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-020-01042-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-020-01042-4

Kello, Christopher T., and David Plaut. 2003. “Strategic Control over Rate of Processing in Word Reading: A Computational Investigation.” Journal of Memory & Language 48 (1): 207–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00512-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00512-0

Kirov, Cristo, and Colin Wilson. 2012. “The Specificity of Online Variation in Speech Production.” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 34: 587–92. Accessed November 6, 2022. https://escholarship.org/uc/cognitivesciencesociety.

Klatt, Dennis H. 1975. “Voice-Onset Time, Frication, and Aspiration in Word-Initial Consonant Clusters.” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 18: 686–706. https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.1804.686. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/jshr.1804.686

Kong-Insam, Milena 2021. “VOT as a Phonetic Cue of Foreign Accentedness – A Case Study Approach of Five Austrian Students of English.” Annals of fhe Faculty of Philology 33 (1): 29–47. https://doi.org/10.18485/analiff.2021.33.1.2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18485/analiff.2021.33.1.2

Ladd, D. Robert, and Stephan Schmid. 2018. “Obstruent Voicing Effects on F0, but without Voicing: Phonetic Correlates of Swiss German Lenis, Fortis, and Aspirated Stops.” Journal of Phonetics 71: 229–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2018.09.003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2018.09.003

Ladefoged, Peter. 2001. Vowels and Consonants. London: Blackwell.

Laganaro, Marina. 2019. “Phonetic Encoding in Utterance Production: A Review of Open Issues from 1989 to 2018.” Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 34 (9): 1193–2201. https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2019.1599128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23273798.2019.1599128

Levenshtein, Vladimir I. 1966. “Binary Codes Capable of Correcting Deletions, Insertions, and Reversals.” Soviet Physics Doklady 10: 707–10.

Luce, Paul A., Stephen Goldinger, Edward T. Auer, and Michael S. Vitevitch. 2000. “Phonetic Priming, Neighborhood Activation, and PARSYN.” Perception and Psychophysics 62 (3): 615–25. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03212113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03212113

Luce, Paul A., and David B. Pisoni. 1998. “Recognizing Spoken Words: The Neighborhood Activation Model.” Ear and Hearing 19: 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1097%2F00003446-199802000-00001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00003446-199802000-00001

Luef, Eva M. 2020. “Development of Voice Onset Time in an Ongoing Phonetic Differentiation in Austrian German Plosives: Reversing a Near-Merger.” Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft 39 (1): 79–101. https://doi.org/10.1515/zfs-2019-2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zfs-2019-2006

—. 2022. “Growth Algorithms in the Phonological Networks of Second Language Learners: A Replication of Siew and Vitevitch (2020a).” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Advance Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0001248. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0001248

Luef, Eva M., and Pia Resnik. in press. “Phonotactic Probabilities and Sub-syllabic Segmentation in Language Learning.” Theory and Practice of Second Language Acquisition 9 (1).

Marian, Victoria, James Bartolotti, Sarah Chabal, and Anthony Shook. 2012. “CLEARPOND: Cross-Linguistic Easy Access Resource for Phonological and Orthographic Neighborhood Densities.” PLoS ONE 7 (8): e43230. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043230. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043230

Marslen-Wilson, William D. 1987. “Functional Parallelism in Spoken-Word Recognition.” Cognition 25: 71–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(87)90005-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(87)90005-9

—. 1990. “Activation, Competition, and Frequency in Lexical Access.” In Cognitive Models of Speech Processing, edited by Gerry T.M. Altmann, 148–72. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Marslen-Wilson, William D., and Pienie Zwitserlood. 1989. “Accessing Spoken Words: The Importance of Word Onsets.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 15 (3): 576–85. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0096-1523.15.3.576. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.15.3.576

McClelland, James L., and Jeffrey L. Elman. 1986. “The TRACE Model of Speech Perception.” Cognitive Psychology 18 (1): 1–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(86)90015-0. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(86)90015-0

Moosmüller, Sylvia, and Catherine Ringen. 2004. “Voice and Aspiration in Austrian German Plosives.” Folia Linguistica 38: 43–62. https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2004.38.1-2.43. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/flin.2004.38.1-2.43

Moosmüller, Sylvia, Carolin Schmid, and Julia Brandstätter. 2015. “Standard Austrian German.” Journal of the International Phonetic Association 45 (3): 339–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100315000055

Morris, Paul A. 2018. “Rate Effects on Southern American English VOT.” Proceedings of the Linguistic Society of America 3 (60): 1–10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3765/plsa.v3i1.4310

Muhr, Rudolf. 2007. Österreichisches Aussprachewörterbuch – Österreichische Aussprachedatenbank.” Bern: Peter Lang.

Munson, Benjamin, and Nancy P. Solomon. 2004. “The Effect of Phonological Neighborhood Density on Vowel Articulation.” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 47 (5): 1048–58. https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2004/078). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2004/078)

Nelson, Noah R., and Andrew Wedel. 2017. “The Phonetic Specificity of Competition: Contrastive Hyperarticulation of Voice Onset Time in Conversational English.” Journal of Phonetics 64: 51–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.01.008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.01.008

Norris, Dennis, and James M. McQueen. 2008. “Shortlist B: A Bayesian Model of Continuous Speech Recognition.” Psychological Review 115: 357–95. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.115.2.357. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.357

Pearman, Peter B., Antoine Guisan, Olivier Broennimann, and Christophe F. Randin. 2008. “Niche Dynamics in Space and Time.” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23 (3): 149–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.11.005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2007.11.005

Peramunage, Dasun, Sheila E. Blumstein, Emily B. Myers, Matthew Goldrick, and Melissa Baese-Berk. 2011. “Phonological Neighborhood Effecrts in Spoken Word Production: An fMRI Study.” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23 (3): 593–603. https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2010.21489. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2010.21489

Pigot, Alex L., and Joseph A. Tobias. 2012. “Species Interactions Constrain Geographic Range Expansion over Evolutionary Time.” Ecology Letters 16 (3): 330–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12043. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12043

Pospíšilová, Andrea. 2011. “Aspiration of English Plosives in Czech Students of English Studies.” Bachelor’s thesis, Charles University.

Przedlacka, Joanna. 2012. “A Historical Study of Voice Onset Time in Received Pronunication.” In Explorations in the English Language: Middle Ages and Beyond, edited by Joanna Esquibel and Anna Wojtys, 67–76, Frankfurt am Main et al.: Peter Lang.

RStudio Team. 2020. RStudio: Integrated Development for R. Boston, MA: PBC. http://www.rstudio.com.

Schertz, Jessamyn. 2013. “Exaggeration of Featural Contrasts in Clarifications of Misheard Speech in English.” Journal of Phonetics 41: 249–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2013.03.007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2013.03.007

Schielzeth, Holger, and Wolfgang Forstmeier. 2009. “Conclusions beyond Support: Over-Confident Estimates in Mixed Models.” Behavioral Ecology 20 (2): 416–20. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arn145. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arn145

Skarnitzl, Radek. 2011. Znělostní kontrast nejen v češtině. Prague: Epocha.

Skarnitzl, Radek, and Jana Rumlová. 2019. “Phonetic Aspects of Strongly-Accented Czech Speakers of English.” Phonetica Pragensia 2: 109–28. https://doi.org/10.14712/24646830.2019.21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/24646830.2019.21

Smiljanić, Rajka, and Ann R. Bradlow. 2008. “Stability of Temporal Contrasts across Speaking Styles in English and Croatian.” Journal of Phonetics 36 (1): 91–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.02.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2007.02.002

Sonderegger, Morgan. 2015. “Trajectories of Voice Onset Time in Spontaneous Speech on Reality TV.” Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Accessed November 6, 2022. https://www.coli.uni-saarland.de/groups/BM/phonetics/resources.html#icphs.

Storkel, Holly L. 2002. “Restructuring of Similarity Neighborhoods in the Developing Mental Lexicon.” Journal of Child Language 29: 251–74. https://doi.org/10.1017/s0305000902005032. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000902005032

Svanbäck, Richard, and Daniel I. Bolnick. 2006. “Intraspecific Competition Drives Increased Resource Use Diversity within a Natural Population.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274 (1611). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.0198

Swartz, Bradford L. 1992. “Gender Difference in Voice Onset Time.” Perceptual and Motor Skills 75 (3): 983–92. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1992.75.3.983. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.1992.75.3.983

Valentina, Concu, and Bruno Staszkiewicz Garcia. 2019. “The Interaction between Phonological Neighborhood Density, Lexical Status, and Lexical Competitors on Production of Italian Stops.” Presented at the 6th NINJAL International Conference on Phonetics and Phonology, Tokyo, Japan.

Vitevitch, Michael S. 2002a. “Influence of Onset Density on Spoken-Word Recognition.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 28 (2): 270–78. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0096-1523.28.2.270. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.28.2.270

—. 2002b. “The Influence of Phonological Similarity Neighborhoods on Speech Production.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28: 735–47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.28.4.735

Vitevitch, Michael S., Jonna Armbrüster, and Shinying Chu. 2004. “Sublexical and Lexical Representations in Speech Production: Effects of Phonotactic Probability and Onset Density.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 30 (2): 514–29. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0278-7393.30.2.514. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.30.2.514

Vitevitch, Michael S., and Paul A. Luce. 1998. “When Words Compete: Levels of Processing in Perception of Spoken Words.” Psychological Science 9 (4): 325–29. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00064. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00064

—. 2016. “Phonological Neighborhood Effects in Spoken Word Perception and Production.” Annual Review of Linguistics 2: 75–94. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-030514-124832. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-linguistics-030514-124832

Vogel, Adam P., Paul Maruff, Peter J. Snyder, and James C. Mundt. 2009. “Standardization of Pitch Range Setting in Voice Acoustic Analysis.” Behavior Research Methods 41: 318–24. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.2.318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.41.2.318

Watt, Dominic, and Jillian Yurkova. 2007. “Voice Onset Time and the Scottish Vowel Length Rule in Aberdeen English.” Proceedings of the 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences: 1521–24.

Whiteside, Sandra P., Anna Hanson, and Patricia E. Cowell. 2004. “Hormones and Temporal Components of Speech: Sex Differences and Effects of Menstrual Cyclicity on Speech.” Neuroscience Letters 367 (1): 44–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2004.05.076. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2004.05.076

Wiesinger, Peter. 2009. “Die Standardaussprache in Österreich.” In Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, edited by Eva-Maria Krech, Eberhard Stock, Ursula Hirschfeld, and Lutz-Christian Anders, 229–58. Berlin: de Gruyter. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110215564.229

Wilson, Andrew J. 2014. “Competition as a Source of Constraint on Life History Evolution in Natural Populations.” Heredity 112: 70–78. https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2013.7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/hdy.2013.7

Wright, Richard. 2004. “Factors of Lexical Competition in Vowel Articulation.” In Papers in Laboratory Phonology VI, edited by John Local, Richard Ogden and Rosalind Temple, 26–50. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Yiu, Loretta K., and Duane G. Watson. 2015. “When Overlap Leads to Competition: Effects of Phonological Encoding on Word Duration.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 22: 1701–8. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0828-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0828-1



31. 12. 2022



Special Issue Articles

How to Cite

Luef, E. M., Resnik, P., & Gráf , T. (2022). Diffusion of Phonetic Updates within Phonological Neighborhoods. ELOPE: English Language Overseas Perspectives and Enquiries, 19(2), 149-168. https://doi.org/10.4312/elope.19.2.149-168