Bilingual Phenomena Occurring in the Speech of Albanian Native Speakers
Keywords:language contact, bilingualism, code-switching, lexical borrowing, calques
This study aims to determine whether bilingual phenomena occur in the speech of Albanian bilingual students with high exposure to English, in an attempt to detect the influence of English on the Albanian language. Special attention is paid to bilingual aspects like codeswitching, lexical borrowings, calques, and hybrid compounds. Data have been gathered through participant systematic observation: Albanian bilingual students have been observed within informal settings of Pristina international schools. Their conversations have been recorded and transcribed for further analysis. The study shows that code-switching is the most common linguistic behaviour among the students under investigation. However, in addition to code-switching, lexical borrowings and calques also play a roughly equivalent role in their speech. This research provides evidence of bilingual phenomena resulting from direct, everyday language contact between English and Albanian in Pristina international schools, which aids in understanding the sociolinguistic changes brought about by such contact.
Ajeti, Idriz. 2005. Studime dialektore dhe etimologjike. Tiranë: Akademia e Shkencave e Shqipërisë.
Bentahila, Abdehali, and Eirlys Davies. 1991. “Constraints on Code-Switching: A Look beyond Grammar.” In Papers for the Symposium on Code-Switching in Bilingual Studies: Theory, Significance and Perspectives: Barcelona, 21-23 March 1991, Vol. I, 369–403. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Blaku, Murat. 2010. Ndikimi i Shqipes mbi të folmet serbe të Kosovës. Prishtinë: Instituti Albanologjik.
Campbell, Lyle. 2013. Historical Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Clyne, Michael. 2003. Dynamics of Language Contact. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Curtis, Mathew. 2012. “Slavic-Albanian Language Contact, Convergence and Coexistence.” PhD diss., The Ohio State University.
Filipović, Rudolf. 1960a. The Phonemic Analysis of English Loan-Words in Croatian. Acta Instituti Phonetici 8. Zagreb: University of Zagreb.
—. 1960b. “Phonemic Importation.” Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 9–10: 177–89.
—. 1968. “Semantic Extension Changes in Adaptation of English Loan-Words in Serbo-Croatian.” Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 25–26: 109–19.
—. 1980. “Transmorphemization: Substitution on the Morphological Level Reinterpreted.” Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 25: 1–8.
—. 1981. “Morphological Categories in Linguistic Borrowing.” Studia Romanica et Anglica Zagrabiensia 26: 197–207.
—. 2002. “Croatian.” In English in Europe, edited by Manfred Görlach, 229–40. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
—. 2018. “Compromise Replica and Phonemic Importation.” In To Honor Roman Jakobson: Essays on the Occasion of His 70 Birthday, 11 October 1966, 662–66. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
Friedman, Victor, and Brian Joseph. 2013. The Balkan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 1995. “Code-Switching in Community, Regional and National Repertoires: The Myth of the Discreteness of Linguistic Systems.” In One Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching, edited by Lesley Milroy and Pieter Muysken, 68–90. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
—. 2009. Code-Switching. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Gërmizaj, Shykrane. 2009. Anglishtja dhe Shqipja- Perqasje dhe kundervenie. BAF Grafik: Prizren.
—. 2013. “Sfidat dhe rezultatet e kontakteve të shqipes me anglishten.” In Studime 20, edited by Rexhep Ismajli, 237–48. Prishtinë: ASHAK.
Gumperz, John. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Haugen, Einar. 1950. “The Analysis of Linguistic Borrowing.” Language 26 (2): 210–31.
Haust, Delia 1995. Codeswitching in Gambia: eine soziolinguistische Untersuchung von Mandinka, Wolof und Englisch in Kontakt. Cologne: Köppe.
Hirsch, Tiana, and Orly Kayam. 2021. “Exploring the Complexities of Transnationalism: The Temporality, the Family, and the Host Language – An Empirical Study.” Ampersand 8: 100072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amper.2020.100072.
Jake, Janice, Carol Myers-Scotton, and Steven Gross. 2002. “Making a Minimalist Approach to Code-Switching Work: Adding the Matrix Language.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 5 (1): 69–91.
Jefferson, Gail. 2004. “Glossary of Transcript Symbols with an Introduction.” In Conversation Analysis: Studies from the First Generation, edited by Gene H. Lerner, 13–31. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Johanson, Lars. 1999. “The Dynamics of Code-Copying in Language Encounters.” In Language Encounters across Time and Space, edited by Bernt Brendemoen, Elizabeth Lanza, and Else Ryen, 37–62. Oslo: Novus.
—. “Contact-Induced Linguistic Change in A Code-Copying Framework.” In Language Change: The Interplay of Internal, External and Extra-Linguistic Factors, edited by Mari C. Jones, and Edith Esch, 285–313. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
—. 2002b. Structural Factors in Turkish Language Contacts. London: Curzon.
MacSwan, Jeff. 2000. “The Architecture of the Bilingual Language Faculty: Evidence from Intrasentential Code Switching.” Bilingualism: Langage and Cognition 3 (1): 37–54. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728900000122.
—. 2005a. “Codeswitching and Generative Grammar: A Critique of the MLF Model and Some Remarks on ‘Modified Minimalism’.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 8 (1): 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728904002068.
—. 2005b. “Comments on Jake, Myers-Scotton and Gross’s Response: There is no ‘Matrix Language’.” Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 8 (2): 277–84. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728905002312.
—. 2013. “Code Switching and Grammatical Theory.” In The Handbook of Bilingualism and Multilingualism, edited by Tej K. Bhatia, and William C. Ritchie, 323–50. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
—. 2014. Grammatical Theory and Bilingual Codeswitching. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
MacSwan, Jeff, and Elly Van Gelderen. 2008. “Interface Conditions and Code-Switching: Pronouns, Lexical DPs, and Checking Theory.” Lingua 118 (6): 765–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2007.05.003.
Matras, Yaron. 2009. Language Contact. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Munishi, Shkumbin. 2020. Projeksion i zhvillimeve sociolinguistike. Prishtinë: Zero Print.
Milroy, Lesley, and Pieter Muysken. 1995. One Speaker, Two Languages: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Code-Switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511620867.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Dueling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
—. 1996. “Code-Switching.” In The Handbook of Sociolinguistics, edited by Florian Coulmas, 217–37. Oxford: Blackwell.
—. 1998. “A Theoretical Introduction to the Markedness Model.” In Codes and Consequences. Choosing Linguistic Varieties, edited by Carol Myers-Scotton, 18–38. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
—. 2001. “The Matrix Language Frame Model: Developments and Responses.” In Codeswitching Worldwide II, edited by Rodolfo Jacobson, 23–58. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
—. 2002. Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
—. 2006. Multiple Voices: An Introduction to Bilingualism. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
—. 2008. “Why Outsider System Morphemes Resist Transfer.” Journal of Language Contact 2 (1): 21–41. https://doi.org/10.1163/000000008792525318.
Myers-Scotton, Carol, and Janice Jake. 2001. “Explaining Aspects of Code-Switching and Their Implications.” In One Mind, Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing, edited by Janet Nicol, 84–116. Oxford: Blackwell.
—. 2017. “Revisiting the 4-M model: Codeswitching and Morpheme Election at the Abstract Level.” International Journal of Bilingualism 21 (3): 340–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367006915626588.
Nevalainen, Terttu. 1999. “Early Modern English Lexis and Semantics.” In The Cambridge History of the English Language: Early Modern English 1476-1776, edited by Roger Lass, 368–76. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nuhiu, Vesel. 2013. Ndikimi i Anglishtes ne Gjuhen Shqipe. Akademia e Shkencave dhe e Arteve e Kosoves: Prishtine.
Poplack, Shana. 1980. “Sometimes I will start a sentence in English y termino en Espanol: Toward a Typology of Code-Switching.” Linguistics 18 (7/8): 581–618. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.1980.18.7-8.581.
—. 1981. “Syntactic Structure and Social Function of Code-Switching.” In Latino Language and Communicative Behavior, edited by Richard P. Duran, 169–84. Norwood: Ablex.
—. 2001. “Code-Switching (Linguistic).” In International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, 2062-65. Elsevier Science.
—. 2004. “Code-Switching.” In Sociolinguistics/Soziolinguistik: An International Handbook of the Science of Language, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, and Peter Trudgill, 589–96. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
—. 2018. Borrowing: Loanwords in the Speech Community and in Grammar. New York: Oxford University Press.
Poplack, Shana, and David Sankoff. 1988. “Code-Switching.” In Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society, 2, edited by Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Matheier, 1174-80. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
Poplack, Shana, Susan Wheeler, and Anelli Westwood. 1989. “Distinguishing Language Contact Phenomena: Evidence from Finnish-English Bilingualism.” World Englishes 8 (3): 389–406. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1989.tb00677.x.
Shabani, Festa, Shkumbin Munishi, and Milote Sadiku. 2022. “Code-Switching in the International Schools of Prishtina: A Study of Albanian/English Bilingualism.” Journal of Language and Literary Studies 40: 401–22. https://doi.org/10.31902/fll.40.2022.20.
Thomason, Sarah G. 2001. Language Contact. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Thomason, Sarah G., and Terrence Kaufman. 1988. Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Treffers-Daller, Jeanine.1991. “Towards a Uniform Approach to Code-Switching and Borrowing.” In ESF Network on Codeswitching and Language Contact, Papers for the Workshop on Constraints, Conditions and Models, 259–79. Strasbourg: European Science Foundation.
Vinay, Jean-Paul, and Jean Darbelnet. 1995. Comparative Stylistics of French and English: A Methodology for Translation. Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing.
Weinreich, Uriel. 1953. Languages in Contact. The Hague: Mouton.
Dictionary of Contemporary Albanian Language, http://www.fjalori.shkenca.org
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Festa Shabani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors are confirming that they are the authors of the submitting article, which will be published (print and online) in journal ELOPE by Znanstvena založba Filozofske fakultete Univerze v Ljubljani (University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Aškerčeva 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia). Author’s name will be evident in the article in journal. All decisions regarding layout and distribution of the work are in hands of the publisher.
- Authors guarantee that the work is their own original creation and does not infringe any statutory or common-law copyright or any proprietary right of any third party. In case of claims by third parties, authors commit their self to defend the interests of the publisher, and shall cover any potential costs.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.