Vloga Svetega pisma v procesih jezikovne standardizacije na primeru valižanščine

Avtorji

  • Oliver Currie Univerza v Ljubljani, Filozofska fakulteta

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4312/jis.67.1-2.27-47

Ključne besede:

jezikovna standardizacija, kodifikacija, sociolingvistična variantnost, prevajanje Svetega pisma, valižanščina

Povzetek

Prevodi Svetega pisma so imeli ključno vlogo v procesih jezikovne standardizacije, saj so v Svetem pismu uporabljene različice spričo njegove edinstvene avtoritete pogosto obveljale kot standardne, obenem pa je bilo Sveto pismo kot besedilo bolj razširjeno kot drugi teksti, še posebej v Evropi v času renesanse in reformacije, kar je pripomoglo ne le k oblikovanju, temveč tudi k razširjanju na Svetem pismu temelječega jezikovnega standarda. Članek proučuje vlogo Svetega pisma v procesih jezikovne standardizacije, pri čemer se osredotoča na zgodovino valižanščine. Jezik prvega integralnega prevoda Svetega pisma v valižanščino iz leta 1588 na splošno velja za temelj standardne književne valižanščine, čeprav doslej še ni bilo sistematične raziskave o tem, kako se je svetopisemski standard razvil oziroma se uveljavil. Prispevek kritično obravnava tradicionalno, vendar nedokazano stališče, da je bil jezik Svetega pisma iz leta 1588 osnovan v srednjeveškem književnem standardu, uveljavljenem v pesništvu. Namesto tega predlaga alternativno domnevo, in sicer da je svetopisemski jezikovni standard rezultat procesa predelave zgodnejših prevodov, v odnosu do katerih prevod iz leta 1588, ki je naposled postal kanoničen, predstavlja reakcijo, s tem da se izrecno opredeljuje do jezikovnih nedoslednosti in idiosinkrazij, značilnih za zgodnejše prevode Novega testamenta in Psalmov.

Literatura

Manuscripts consulted

National Library of Wales

Cwrtmawr MS 253

NLW MS 3B

NLW MS 73A

NLW MS 12205A

Bangor University Library

Bangor MS 95

Cardiff City Library (microfilm held in National Library of Wales)

Cardiff MS 2.219

*******

References

Ammon, Ulrich, 2003: On the Social Forces that Determine what is Standard in a Language and on Conditions of Successful Implementation. Sociolinguistica 17/1. 1–10.

Ayres-Bennett, Wendy, 2020: From Haugen’s codification to Thomas’s purism: assessing the role of description and prescription, prescriptivism and purism in linguistic standardisation. Language Policy 19/2. 183–213.

Brown, Josh, 2020: Language history from below: Standardization and Koineization in Renaissance Italy. Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics 6/1. 1–28.

Burke, Peter, 2004: Languages and Communities in Early Modern Europe, The 2002 Wiles Lectures Given at the Queen’s University, Belfast. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Costa, James, Haley De Korne, and Pia Lane, 2018: Standardising minority Languages: Reinventing peripheral languages in the 21st Century. Pia Lane, James Costa and Haley De Korne (eds.): Standardizing Minority Languages. Competing Ideologies of Authority and Authenticity in the Global Periphery. London: Routledge. 1–23.

Currie, Oliver, 2013: Gradual change and continual variation: The history of a verb-initial construction in Welsh. Anna Giacalone Ramat, Caterina Mauri and Piera Molinelli (eds.): Synchrony and Diachrony. A dynamic interface. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 43–78.

Currie, Oliver, 2016: The sixteenth century Bible translations and the development of Welsh literary prose style. Translation Studies 9/2. 152–167.

Currie, Oliver, 2022: National myths and language status in early modern Wales and Brittany. Karen Bennett and Angelo Cattaneo (eds.): Language Dynamics in the Early Modern Period. London: Routledge. 53–73.

Cymdeithas y Beibl, 1988: Y Beibl Cymraeg Newydd, yn cynnwys yr Apocryffa. Swindon: Cymdeithas y Beibl.

Darquennes, Jeroen, and Wim Vandenbussche, 2015: The standardisation of minority languages – introductory remarks. Sociolinguistica 29 (1):1–16.

Davies, Janet, 2014: The Welsh language. A History. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.

Deumert, Ana, 2004: Language Standardization and Language Change. The dynamics of Cape Dutch. Impact: Studies in Language and Society. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Evans, Geraint, and Fulton, Helen (eds.), 2019: The Cambridge History of Welsh Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fowkes, Robert A., 1993: The »standard« Welsh of the 1588 Bible. Language Sciences 15/2. 141–153.

Fulton, Helen, 2011: Literature of the Welsh gentry: uses of the vernacular in medieval Wales. Salter, Elisabeth, and Wicker, Helen (eds.): Vernacularity in England and Wales, c. 1300–1550. Turnhout: Brepols. 195–218.

Gruffydd, R. Geraint, 1988: »Y Beibl a droes i’w bobl draw«: William Morgan yn 1588/»The Translating of the Bible into the Welsh Tongue« by William in 1588. London: BBC.

Haugen, Einar, 1972 [1966]: Dialect, language, nation. S. Dil, Anwar (ed.): The Ecology of Language. Stanford: Stanford University Press. 237–254.

Haugen, Einar, 2012 [1987]: Blessings of Babel. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Jenkins, Geraint H., Suggett, Richard, and White, Eryn M., 1997: Yr Iaith Gymraeg yn y Gymru Fodern Gynnar. Y Gymraeg yn ei Disgleirdeb. Yr Iaith Gymraeg cyn y Chwyldro Diwydianol. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru. 45–119.

Jones, Mari C., 1998: Language obsolescence and revitalization. Linguistic change in two socially contrasting Welsh communities. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Joseph, John E., 1987: Eloquence and Power. The Rise of Language Standards and Standard Languages. London: Frances Pinter.

Lewis, Ceri W., 1997: Einion Offeiriad and the bardic grammar. Jarman, A. O. H., Rees Hughes, Gwilym, Johnstone, Dafydd (eds.): A Guide to Welsh Literature 1282-c. 1530. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 44–71.

Lewis, E. Glyn, 1987: Attitude to the planned development of Welsh. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 66. 11–26.

Llewellyn, Anastasia, 2018: Saviour of the Language? The Role and Impact of the Welsh Bible. Master’s thesis. Concordia University.

Lloyd-Jones, John, 1938. Y Beibl Cymraeg: (The Welsh Bible) 1588–1938. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Mathias, W. Alun, 1970: William Salesbury – ei ryddiaith. Bowen, Geraint (ed.): Y Traddodiad Rhyddiaith. Llandysul: Gwasg Gomer. 54–78.

Miguélez-Carballeira, Helena, Price, Angharad, and Kaufmann, Judith, 2016: Introduction: Translation in Wales: History, theory and approaches. Translation Studies 9/2. 125–136.

Morgan, William, and National Library of Wales, 1987 [1588]: Y Beibl Cyssegr-lan 1588. Aberystwyth: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru.

Nevalainen, Terttu. 2014: Norms and usage in seventeenth-century English. Rutten, Gijsbert, and Vosters, Rik (eds.): Norms and Usage in Language History, 1600–1900. A sociolinguistic and comparative perspective. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 103–128.

ONS. 2011 Census: Quick Statistics for Wales, March 2011. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/2011censusquickstatisticsforwales/2013-01-30.

Parry, Thomas, 1979 [1944]: Hanes Llenyddiaeth Gymraeg hyd 1900. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Penry, John, 1588: An exhortation vnto the gouernours and people of her Maiesties countrie of Wales, to labour earnestly to haue the preaching of the Gospell planted among them. Aldermanbury: Robert Waldegrave.

Poppe, Erich, 2004: John Davies and the Study of Grammar: Antiquae Linguae Britannicae ... Rudimenta. Davies, Ceri (ed.): Dr John Davies of Mallwyd. Welsh renaissance scholar. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. 121–145.

Price, Angharad, 2019: Welsh humanism after 1536. Evans, Geraint and Fulton, Helen (eds.): The Cambridge History of Welsh Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 176–193.

Richards, Melville, and Williams, Glanmor (eds.), 1965 [1567]: Llyfr Gweddi Gyffredin 1567. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Robert, Elen, 2011: Standardness and the Welsh language. Kristiansen, Tore and Coupland, Nikolas (eds.): Standard Languages and Language Standards in a Changing Europe. Oslo: Novus Press. 135–141.

Robert, Gruffydd, and Williams, G. J., 1939 [1567]: Gramadeg Cymraeg: yn ôl yr argraffiad y dechreuwyd ei gyhoeddi ym Milan yn 1567. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Roberts, Peter, 1989: The Welsh language, English law and Tudor legislation. Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. 19–75.

Salesbury, William, 1567: Testament Newydd ein arglwydd Jesu Christ. London: Henry Denham.

Suggett, Richard, and White, Eryn, 2002: Language, literacy and aspects of identity in early modern Wales. Fox, Adam, and Woolf, Daniel (eds.): Spoken Word. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 52-83.

Swann, Joan, Ana Deumert, Theresa Lillis, and Rajend Mesthrie, 2004: A Dictionary of Sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Thomas, Isaac, 1976: Y Testament Newydd Cymraeg, 1551-1620. Caerdydd [Cardiff, Wales]: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Thomas, Isaac, 1988: Yr Hen Destament Cymraeg 1551-1620. Aberystwyth: Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru.

Williams, G. J., and E. J. Jones (eds.), 1934: Gramadegau’r Pencerddiaid. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru.

Williams, Glanmor, 1989: William Morgan’s Bible and the Cambridge connection. Welsh History Review Cylchgrawn Hanes Cymru 14. 363–379.

Williams, Glanmor, 1997: Uniolaeth crefydd neu uniolaeth iaith? Protestaniaid a phabyddion a’r iaith Gymraeg 1536-1660. Jenkins, Geraint H. (ed.): Y Gymraeg yn ei Disgleirdeb. Yr Iaith Gymraeg cyn y Chwyldro Diwyidannol. Caerdydd: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru. 207–232.

Williams, William Prichard, 1908 [1595]: Deffynniad Ffyfdd Eglwys Loegr a gyfiethwyd i’r Gymraeg, o Ladin Esgob Jewel yn y flwyddyn 1595, gan Maurice Kyffin. Bangor: Jarvis & Foster.

Willis, David W. E., 1998: Syntactic Change in Welsh. A Study of the Loss of Verb-Second. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Wright, Sue, 2012: Language policy, the nation and nationalism. Spolsky, Bernard (ed.): The Cambridge Handbook of Language Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 59–78.

Objavljeno

12.07.2022

Kako citirati

Currie, O. (2022). Vloga Svetega pisma v procesih jezikovne standardizacije na primeru valižanščine. Jezik in Slovstvo, 67(1-2), 27–47. https://doi.org/10.4312/jis.67.1-2.27-47

Številka

Rubrike

Razprave