Key Insights about Romeyka’s Linguistic Description and Evolution, Vitality, and Revitalisation Prospects after 15 Years of Field-based Research

Authors

  • Ioanna Sitaridou University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Jerneja Kavčič University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Arts, Slovenia translator

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.4312/keria.25.2.9-32

Keywords:

Romeyka, Pontic Greek, endangered, Turkey, evolution

Abstract

Romeyka is the last surviving variety of Greek spoken in north-eastern Turkey. Islamisation of Greek speakers in the areas of Of, Sürmene, Rize, and Matsouka, is reported in the 15th-18th centuries. Through the Exchange of Populations between Greece and Turkey in 1923, Greek-speaking Muslims were allowed to stay in their Asia Minor homeland, which explains why Greek survives only in small enclaves in this area. In this article we discuss the main findings and conclusions about Romeyka, 15 years since the first field trip to the Trabzon area. We survey the main elements of external history and its genetic classification; we provide an overview of documentation efforts for Romeyka and a brief grammatical sketch; finally, we discuss its current sociolinguistic situation and the revitalization efforts against within a context of many ideological(ised) challenges.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Asan, O. Pontos Kulturu [Pontska kultura]. Belge: Istanbul, 2000.

Bağrıacık, M. Pharasiot Greek. Word order and Clause Structure. Doktorska disertacija. Univerza v Gentu, 2018.

Boeder, W. »The South Caucasian languages«. Lingua 15 (2005): 5–89.

Bortone, P. »Greek with no history, no standard, no models: Muslim Pontic Greek.« V A. Georgakopoulou in M. Silk, ur., Standard languages and language standards: Greek, past and present, 67–89. London: Ashgate, 2009.

Brendemoen, B. The Turkish dialects of Trabzon. Their phonology and historical development. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2002.

Brixhe, C. Essai sur le grec anatolien au début de notre ère. Nancy: Presses Universitaires de Nancy, 1987.

Browning, R. Medieval and Modern Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Bryer, A. »Greeks and Türkmens: The Pontic exception.« Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975): 113–148. DOI: 10.2307/1291371

Bryer, A. »The Pontic Greeks before the diaspora«. Journal of Refugee Studies 4, št. 4 (1991): 315–334. DOI: 10.1093/jrs/4.4.315

Bryer, A., in D. Winfield. The Byzantine monuments and topography of the Pontos. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1985.

Bubenik, V. Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a sociolinguistic area. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1989.

Castoriades, C. L’institution imaginaire de la société. Pariz: Le Seuil, 1975.

Chatzopoulou, K. in I. Sitaridou. »Jespersen’s cycle for NEG2 and conditional inversion in the history of Greek: evidence from Romeyka conditionals.« 16th Diachronic Generative Syntax Conference, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, 3.–5. junij 2014.

Dawkins, R. M. Modern Greek in Asia Minor: a study of the dialects of Silli, Cappadocia and Pharasa with grammar, texts, translations, and glossary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1916.

Dawkins, R. M. »Notes on the study of the Modern Greek of Pontos.« Byzantion 6 (1931): 389–400.

Dawkins, R. M. »The Pontic dialect of Modern Greek in Asia Minor and Russia.« Transactions of the Philological Society 36 (1937): 15–52.

Dawkins, R. M. »The dialects of Modern Greek.« Transactions of the Philological Society 39 (1940): 1–38.

Donabedian, A. in I. Sitaridou. »Language contact in Anatolia.« V: E. Adamou in Y. Matras, ur., Handbook of language contact, 404–434. London: Routledge, 2020.

Drettas, G. Aspects pontiques. Pariz: Association de recherches pluridisciplinaires, 1997.

Drettas, G. »Το ελληνο-ποντιακό διαλεκτικό σύνολο.« V: A. Ph. Christidis, M. Arapopoulou in G. Giannoulopoulou, ur., Διαλεκτικοί θύλακοι της ελληνικής γλώσσας/Dialect enclaves of the Greek language, 15–24. Atene: Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs/Centre for the Greek Language, 1999.

Guardiano, C., D. Michelioudakis, A. Ceolin, M. A. Irimia, G. Longobardi, N. Radkevich, G. Silvestri, G. in I. Sitaridou. »South by Southeast. A syntactic approach to Greek and Romance microvariation.« L’Italia dialettale 77 (2016): 95–166.

Holton, D. in I. Manolessou. »Medieval and Early Modern Greek.« V: E. J. Bakker, ur., A companion to the Ancient Greek language, 539–563. Malden, MA in Oxford: Wiley-­Blackwell, 2010.

Holton, D., G. Horrocks, M. Janssen, T. Lendari, I. Manolessou in N. Toufexis. The Cambridge grammar of Medieval and Early Modern Greek. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Horrocks, G. Greek: a history of the language and its speakers. Malden, MA in Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2010.

Janse, M. »Clitic doubling from Ancient to Asia Minor Greek.« V: D. Kallulli in L. Tasmowski, ur., Clitic doubling in the Balkan languages, Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 130, 165–202. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2008.

Kapsomenos, S. Ἀπὸ τὴν ἱστορία τῆς Ἑλληνικῆς γλώσσας: Ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ γλῶσσα ἀπὸ τὰ Ἑλληνιστικὰ ὣς τὰ Νεότερα χρόνια. Ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ γλῶσσα στὴν Αἴγυπτο. Solun: Aristoteleio Panepistimio Thessalonikis – Institouto Neoellinikon Spoudon [Idryma Manoli Trantafyllidi], 1985 [2003].

Karatsareas, P. »On the diachrony of gender in Asia Minor Greek: the development of semantic agreement in Pontic.« Language Sciences 43 (2014): 77–101.

Karatsareas, P. A study of Cappadocian Greek Nominal Morphology from a Diachronic and Dialectological Perspective. Doktorska disertacija, University of Cambridge, 2011.

Lowry, H. The Ottoman Tahrir Defters as a Source for Urban Demographic History: The case of Trabzon (ca. 1463–1583). Doktorska disertacija, UCLA, 1997.

Mackridge, P. »Greek-speaking Moslems of North-East Turkey: prolegomena to study of the Ophitic Sub-dialect of Pontic.« Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 11 (1987): 115–137.

Mackridge, P. »Τα Ποντιακά στη σημερινή Τουρκία: Αρχαία στοιχεία στο ιδίωμα του ΄Οφη.« Αρχείον Πόντου 46 (1995): 153–161.

Mackridge, P. »The Medieval Greek infinitive in the light of Modern dialectal evidence.« V: C. N. Constantinides, N. M. Panagiotakis, E. Jeffreys in A. D. Angelou, ur., ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝ: studies in honour of Robert Browning, 191–204. Benetke: Istituto ellenico di studi bizantini e postbizantini di Venezia, 1996.

Mackridge, P. »Η ελληνοφωνία στην περιοχή του Όφη (Πόντος).« V: A.-Ph. Christidis, ur., Dialect enclaves of the Greek language, 25–30. Solun: Centre for the Greek Language, 1999.

Meeker, M. A nation of empire: The Ottoman legacy of Turkish modernity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Michelioudakis, D. in I. Sitaridou. »Towards a formal model of transfer under contact: contrasting Asia Minor Greek to mainland Greek and Turkish in search of syntactic borrowings.« V: M. Georgiafentis, G. Giannoulopoulou, M. Koliopoulou in A. Tsokoglou, ur., Contrastive studies in morphology and syntax, 245–261. London: Bloomsbury, 2020.

Michelioudakis, D. in I. Sitaridou. »Recasting the typology of multiple Wh-fronting: evidence from Pontic Greek.« Glossa: a journal of general linguistics 1, št. 1 (2016): 40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/gjgl.72

Michelioudakis, D. in I. Sitaridou. »Syntactic microvariation: dative constructions in Greek.« V: R. Etxepare & B. Fernandez, ur., Datives in variation: a micro-comparative perspective, 212–255. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

Neocleous, N. Word Order and Information Structure in Romeyka: A Syntax and Semantics Interface Account of Order in a Minimalist System. Doktorska disertacija, University of Cambridge, 2020.

Neocleous, N. in I. Sitaridou. »Never just contact. The rise of final auxiliaries in Asia Minor Greek.« Diachronica 16 (2022): 369–408.

Neocleous, N. In I. Sitaridou. »Word Order in Romeyka« (v recenzijskem postopku).

Oikonomidis, D. Η. Γραμματική της ελληνικής διαλέκτου του Πόντου. Atene: Ακαδημία Αθηνών, 1958.

Özkan, H. »The Pontic Greek spoken by Muslims in the villages of Beskoy in the povince of presentday Trabzon.« Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies 37 (2013): 130–150.

Papadopoulos, A. A. Ιστορική γραμματική της ποντικής διαλέκτου. Atene: Επιτροπή Ποντιακών Μελετών, 1955.

Rothman, J. »Pragmatic solution for syntactic problems: understanding some L2 syntactic errors in terms of pragmatic deficits.« V: S. Baauw, F. Dirjkoningen in M. Pinto, ur., Romance languages and linguistic theory 2005, 299–320. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2007.

Sağlam, E. »Tracing ‘Greek’ heritage in contemporary Turkey: anthropological insights into intangible heritages, collective memory, and identity on the Black Sea littoral.« Journal of Modern Greek Studies 40 (2022): 373–394.

Sağlam, E. »ʻBecause they would misunderstand!’ Romeyka heritage and masculine reconfigurations of public culture in contemporary Turkey. V: P. Hecker in I. Furman, ur., Politics of culture in contemporary Turkey, 292–309. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2021.

Sağlam, E. »Intimate and yet alienated: landscapes, identity, and memories.« Études Armeniennes Contemporaines 13 (2021): 161–185.

Sağlam, E. Constitutive Ambiguities: Collective Memory and Subjectivity in Romeika-Speaking Communities of Trabzon, Turkey. Doktorska disertacija, University of London, 2017.

Sağlam, E. in I. Sitaridou. »Speaking Greek as a Turkish nationalist: language ideologies, intergenerational transmission, and pathways for Romeyka’s preservation in contemporary Turkey« (v pripravi).

Schreiber L. in I. Sitaridou. »Assessing the sociolinguistic vitality of Romeyka: an attitudinal study.« Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 39 (2017): 1–16.

Silva-Corvalan, C. Language contact and change: Spanish in Los Angeles. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994.

Silverstein, M. »Indexical order and the dialectics of sociolinguistic life.« Language and Communication 23 (2003): 193–229.

Sitaridou, I. »Infinitives with subjects in Greek and Southern Italian dialects: a Sprachbund effect.« V: D. Bentley in A. Ledgeway, ur., Sui dialetti italoromanzi. Saggi in onore di Nigel B. Vincent, The Italianist, Special Supplement, 221–242. London: Maney, 2007.

Sitaridou, I. in S. Tsiplakou. »On overt and covert language attitudes among Romeyka speakers«, Workshop on ‘Romeyka and Asia Minor Greek’, Queens’ College, 1. april 2012.

Sitaridou, I. »Greek-speaking enclaves in Pontus today: the documentation and revitalization of Romeyka.« V: M. Jones in S. Ogilvie, ur., Keeping languages alive. Language endangerment: documentation, pedagogy and revitalization, 98–112. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Sitaridou, I. in M. Kaltsa. »Contrastivity in Pontic Greek.« Lingua 146 (2014): 1–27.

Sitaridou, I. »Modality, antiveridicality, and complementation: the Romeyka infinitive as a Negative Polarity Item.« Lingua 148 (2014): 118–146.

Sitaridou, I. »The Romeyka infinitive: continuity, contact and change in the Hellenic varieties of Pontus.« Diachronica 31, št. 1 (2014): 23–73.

Sitaridou, I. »Reframing the phylogeny of Asia Minor Greek: the view from Pontic Greek.« CHS Research Bulletin, Center for Hellenic Studies, Harvard University 4, št. 1 (2016): 1–17.

Sitaridou, I. »The rise of novel negators in Romeyka: negative existential cycle and monoclausality«, Workshop on The Negative Existential Cycle from a historical-comparative perspective, Stockholm University, 4 in 5. maj 2017.

Sitaridou, I. »Null objects in Romeyka: contact with Turkish or internal conditioning?« Workshop on Historical language contact in English and beyond, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 31. marec–2. april 2017.

Sitaridou, I. »(In)vulnerable inflected infinitives as complements to volitionals and modals: evidence from Galician and Romeyka.« V: T. Eythorsson in J. G. Jonsson, ur., Syntactic features and the limits of syntactic change, 161–177. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2021.

Sitaridou, I. »On the redundancy of a theory of language contact: cue-based reconstruction in a sociolinguistically informed manner.« V: N. Lavidas in K. Nikiforidou, ur., Language change: theory and methodologies in the 21st century, 15–52. Leiden: Brill, 2022.

Sitaridou, I. »Koine Greek.« V: W. Bisang, J. Kabatek in B. Kortmann, ur., Spread of world languages. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 2024.

Sitaridou, I. »The evolution of negation in Romeyka.« Rokopis, University of Cambridge.

Thumb, A. »On the value of Modern Greek for the study of Ancient Greek.« The Classical Quaterly 8, št. 3 (1914): 181–205.

Triantafyllides, M. Νεοελληνικὴ γραμματική. Zvezek 1: Ἱστορικὴ εἰσαγωγή. Solun: Aristoteleio Panepistimio Thessalonikis – Institouto Neoellinikon Spoudon [Idryma Manoli Triantafyllidi], 1938 [2002].

Tsetskhladze, G. Greek colonization: An account of Greek colonies and other settlements overseas. 2 zvezka. Leiden: Brill, 2008.

Tziovas, D. Re-imaining the past. Antiquity and Modern Greek culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Vryonis, S. The decline of medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor: And the process of Islamization from the eleventh through the fifteenth century. (Publications of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.) Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

West, M. »Odyssey and Argonautica.« The Classical Quarterly 55, št. 1 (2005): 39–64.

Published

28. 12. 2023

How to Cite

Sitaridou, Ioanna. 2023. “Key Insights about Romeyka’s Linguistic Description and Evolution, Vitality, and Revitalisation Prospects After 15 Years of Field-Based Research”. Translated byJerneja Kavčič. Keria: Studia Latina Et Graeca 25 (2): 9-32. https://doi.org/10.4312/keria.25.2.9-32.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>