Anatomy of xylem and phloem in stems and roots of Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila from semi-arid steppe in Mongolia

Authors

  • Anastazija Dimitrova
  • Angela Balzano
  • Katarina Čufar University of Ljubljana
  • Gabriella S. Scippa
  • Maks Merela
  • Antonio Montagnoli
  • Batkhuu Nyam-Osor
  • Enkhchimeg Tsedensodnom Chimgee
  • Donato Chiatante

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.26614/les-wood.2023.v72n02a02

Keywords:

Siberian poplar (Populus sibirica), Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila), cambium, xylem, phloem, stem, root, microcore

Abstract

The present study focuses on the cambium and the anatomy of secondary tissues (xylem – wood and phloem) of Siberian poplar (Populus sibirica) and Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila) grown in a plantation in the semi-arid Mongolian steppe. Stem and root microcores from both species were collected and subsequently processed to obtain cross-sections for light microscopy by paraffin embedding, sectioning with a rotary microtome, and staining with safranin and astra blue. The results present the anatomy of the secondary xylem and phloem of stems and roots of both species, along with the characteristics of the youngest xylem and phloem annual rings. We discuss the critical aspects which need to be considered when using the microcoring methodology, along with the need for further studies on wood and phloem formation of less-commonly studied tree species and their characteristics when grown in semi-arid environments.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Balzano, A., Čufar, K., Battipaglia, G., Merela, M., Prislan, P., Aronne, G., & De Micco, V. (2018). Xylogenesis reveals the genesis and ecological signal of IADFs in Pinus pinea L. and Arbutus unedo L. Annals of Botany, 121(6), 1231–1242. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcy008

Balzano, A., Čufar, K., Krže, L., & Merela, M. (2022). Critical steps and troubleshooting in sample preparation for wood and phloem formation: from sampling to microscopic observation: Kritični koraki in reševanje težav pri pripravi vzorcev za spremljanje nastajanja lesa in floema: od vzorčenja do opazovanja pod mikroskopom. Les/Wood, 71(1), 47–56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.26614/les-wood.2022.v71n01a05

Byambadorj, S.-O., Chiatante, D., Akhmadi, K., Lunten, J., Ochirbat, B., Park, B. B., …, & Nyam-Osor, B. (2021a). The effect of different watering regimes and fertilizer addition on the growth of tree species used to afforest the semi-arid steppe of Mongolia. Plant Biosystems-An International Journal Dealing with All Aspects of Plant Biology, 155(4), 747–758. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2020.1779845

Byambadorj, S. O., Park, B. B., Hernandez, J. O., Tsedensodnom, E., Byambasuren, O., Montagnoli, A., Chiatante, D., & Nyam-Osor, B. (2021b). Effects of irrigation and fertilization on the morphophysiological traits of Populus sibirica hort. Ex Tausch and Ulmus pumila l. in the semiarid steppe region of Mongolia. Plants, 10(11). DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112407 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10112407

Byambadorj, S. O., Nyam-Osor, B., Park, B. B., Avirmed, T., Scippa, G. S., Chiatante, D., Montagnoli, A., & Dimitrova, A. (2022). Afforestation of Mongolian steppe: patterns of biomass partitioning in Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila trees in response to management supporting measures. Plant Biosystems, 156(4), 969–981. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.1985002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.1985002

Catesson, A. M., Funada, R., Robert-Baby, D., Quinet-Szely, M., Chu-Bâ, J., & Goldberg, R. (1994). Biochemical and cytochemical cell wall changes across the cambial zone. IAWA Journal, 15(1), 91–101. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90001347

Crivellaro, A., & Schweingruber, F. H. (2015). Stem anatomical features of Dicotyledons. Remagen: Kessel Publishing.

Čufar, K. (2006). Anatomija lesa [univerzitetni učbenik]. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta.

Freschet, G. T., Pagès, L., Iversen, C. M., Comas, L. H., Rewald, B., Roumet, C., …, & McCormack, M. L. (2021). A starting guide to root ecology: strengthening ecological concepts and standardising root classification, sampling, processing and trait measurements. New Phytologist, 232(3), 973–1122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17572 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17572

Giagli, K., Gričar, J., Vavrčík, H., Menšík, L., & Gryc, V. (2016). The effects of drought on wood formation in Fagus sylvatica during two contrasting years. IAWA Journal, 37(2), 332–348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-20160137

Gričar, J., & Čufar, K. (2007). Xylo- and phloemogenesis in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.): Ksilo- in floemogeneza pri beli jelki (Abies alba Mill.) in navadni smreki (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Ljubljana: Slovenian Forestry Institute.

Gričar, J., & Čufar, K. (2008). Seasonal dynamics of phloem and xylem formation in silver fir and Norway spruce as affected by drought. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 55, 538–543. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1134/S102144370804016X

Gričar, J., Prislan, P., De Luis, M., Novak, K., Longares, L. A., Martinez del Castillo, E. M., & Čufar, K. (2016). Lack of annual periodicity in cambial production of phloem in trees from Mediterranean areas. IAWA Journal, 37(2), 349–364. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-20160138

Gričar, J. (2019). Značilnosti lesnih in floemskih prirastkov pri trepetliki (Populus tremula L.)/Characteristics of wood and phloem increments in Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula L.). Folia Biologica et Geologica, 60(2), 85–94. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3986/fbg0060

Holdheide, W. (1951). Anatomie mitteleuropaischer Geholzrinden (mit mikrophotographischem Atlas). H Freund’s Handbuch Der Mikroskopie in Der Technik, 5, 193–367.

InsideWood (2023) InsideWood Database http://insidewood.lib.ncsu.edu, 2004 onwards (accessed 6.6.2023)

Lachaud, S., Catesson, A.-M., & Bonnemain, J.-L. (1999). Structure and functions of the vascular cambium. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie Des Sciences-Series III-Sciences de La Vie, 322(8), 633–650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0764-4469(99)80103-6

Larson, P. R. (1994). The vascular cambium. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-78466-8

Liu, H., Xu, C., Allen, C. D., Hartmann, H., Wei, X., Yakir, D., Wu, X., & Yu, P. (2022). Nature‐based framework for sustainable afforestation in global drylands under changing climate. Global Change Biology, 28(7), 2202–2220. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16059

Martinez del Castillo, E., Longares, L. A., Gričar, J., Prislan, P., Gil-Pelegrín, E., Čufar, K., & De Luis, M. (2016). Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 370. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00370

Michelot, A., Simard, S., Rathgeber, C., Dufrêne, E., & Damesin, C. (2012). Comparing the intra-annual wood formation of three European species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Pinus sylvestris) as related to leaf phenology and non-structural carbohydrate dynamics. Tree Physiology, 32(8), 1033–1045. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tps052

Montagnoli, A., Lasserre, B., Terzaghi, M., Byambadorj, S.-O., Nyam-Osor, B., Scippa, G. S., & Chiatante, D. (2022). Fertilization reduces root architecture plasticity in Ulmus pumila used for afforesting Mongolian semi-arid steppe. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.878299

Nyam-Osor, B., Byambadorj, S. O., Park, B. B., Terzaghi, M., Scippa, G. S., Stanturf, J. A., Chiatante, D., & Montagnoli, A. (2021). Root biomass distribution of Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila afforestation stands is affected by watering regimes and fertilization in the Mongolian semi-arid steppe. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, 1–14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.638828 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.638828

Prislan, P., Koch, G., Čufar, K., Gričar, J., & Schmitt, U. (2009). Topochemical investigations of cell walls in developing xylem of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Holzforschung 63(4), 482-490. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2009.079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2009.079

Prislan, P., Schmitt, U., Koch, G., Gričar, J., & Čufar, K. (2011). Seasonal ultrastructural changes in the cambial zone of beech (Fagus sylvatica) grown at two different altitudes. Iawa Journal, 32(4), 443–459. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000070

Prislan, P., Koch, G., Schmitt, U., Gričar, J., & Čufar, K. (2012). Cellular and topochemical characteristics of secondary changes in bark tissues of beech (Fagus sylvatica). Holzforschung 66(1), 131–138. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2011.119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HF.2011.119

Prislan, P., Čufar, K., Koch, G., Schmitt, U., & Gričar, J. (2013a). Review of cellular and subcellular changes in the cambium. IAWA Journal, 34(4), 391–407. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-00000032

Prislan, P., Gričar, J., de Luis, M., Smith, K. T., & Čufar, K. (2013b). Phenological variation in xylem and phloem formation in Fagus sylvatica from two contrasting sites. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 180, 142–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.06.001

Prislan, P., Martinez Del Castillo, E., Krže, L., Habjan, P., Merela, M., & Reijnen, H. (ed.) (2014a). Wood sample preparation for microscopic analysis – video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUddCGVr0bY (30.8.2023).

Prislan, P., Gričar, J., & Čufar, K. (2014b). Wood sample preparation for microscopic analysis – protocol. URL: https://repozitorij.uni-lj.si/IzpisGradiva.php?lang=slv&id=148728 (5.7.2023)

Prislan, P., Gričar, J., De Luis, M., Novak, K., Martinez del Castillo, E., Schmitt, U., Koch, G., …, & Žnidarič, M. T. (2016). Annual cambial rhythm in Pinus halepensis and Pinus sylvestris as indicator for climate adaptation. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 1923. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01923

Prislan, P., Mrak, P., Žnidaršič, N., Štrus, J., Humar, M., Thaler, N., Mrak, T., & Gričar, J. (2019). Intra-annual dynamics of phloem formation and ultrastructural changes in sieve tubes in Fagus sylvatica. Tree Physiology, 39(2), 262–274. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpy102

Prislan, P., Martinez del Castillo, E. M., Skoberne, G., Špenko, N., & Gričar, J. (2022). Sample preparation protocol for wood and phloem formation analyses. Dendrochronologia, 73, 125959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2022.125959

Rossi, S., Deslauriers, A., & Anfodillo, T. (2006a). Assessment of cambial activity and xylogenesis by microsampling tree species: an example at the Alpine timberline. Iawa Journal, 27(4), 383–394. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000161

Rossi, S., Anfodillo, T., & Menardi, R. (2006b). Trephor: A new tool for sampling microcores from tree stems. IAWA Journal, 27(1), 89–97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000139 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000139

Van der Werf, G. W., Sass-Klaassen, U. G. W., & Mohren, G. M. J. (2007). The impact of the 2003 summer drought on the intra-annual growth pattern of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) on a dry site in the Netherlands. Dendrochronologia, 25(2), 103–112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2007.03.004

Wheeler, E. A., Baas, P., & Gasson, P. E. (1989). IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification.

Wheeler, E. A. (2011). InsideWood - A web resource for hardwood anatomy. IAWA Journal, 32(2), 199–211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000051

Downloads

Published

30.09.2023

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Dimitrova, A., Balzano, A., Scippa, G. S., Merela, M., Montagnoli, A., Nyam-Osor, B., Chimgee, E. T., & Chiatante, D. (2023). Anatomy of xylem and phloem in stems and roots of Populus sibirica and Ulmus pumila from semi-arid steppe in Mongolia. Les/Wood, 72(2), 37-48. https://doi.org/10.26614/les-wood.2023.v72n02a02

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>