Biocomposite / bionanocomposite films based on polyvinyl alcohol reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils and different types of tannins


  • Urša Osolnik
  • Viljem Vek
  • Primož Oven
  • Ida Poljanšek



biocomposite and bionanocomposite films, polyvinyl alcohol, cellulose nanofibrils CNF, tannic acid, gallic acid, chestnut tannin


The aim of our study was to develop biocomposite and bionanocomposite films based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the addition of a reinforcing component – cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and different types of biologically active tannins – along with tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA) and chestnut tannin (KT). CNF was added in a weight percentage of 2%, while TA, GA and KT had a weight percentage of 4% in relation to PVA. The addition of 4% TA to the PVA matrix resulted in a biocomposite film with more than 25% higher tensile strength compared to the neat PVA film. By adding 2% CNF and 4% TA to the PVA matrix, a bionanocomposite film (P2C4T) with an improved elastic modulus and higher tensile strength was obtained. At the same time, the flexibility of this bionanocomposite was greatly increased, as the elongation at the breaking of the final formulated film (P2C4T) was more than 50% higher than the elongation at break of the neat PVA film. The surface hydrophilicity of the two-component PVA films was lower, while that of the three-component films was higher.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdul Khalil, H. P. S., Davoudpour, Y., Islam, M. N., Mustapha, A., Sudesh, K., Dungani, R., & Jawaid, M. (2014). Production and modification of nanofibrillated cellulose using various mechanical processes: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 99, 649–665. DOI: DOI:

Dai, H., Huang, Y., & Huang, H. (2018). Enhanced performances of polyvinyl alcohol films by introducing tannic acid and pineapple peel-derived cellulose nanocrystals. Cellulose, 25, 4623–4637. DOI: DOI:

Dufresne, A. (2013). Nanocellulose: a new ageless bionanomaterial. Materials Today, 16, 220–227. DOI: DOI:

Espinosa, E., Bascon-Villegas, I., Rosal, A., Perez-Rodriguez, F., Chinga-Carrasco, G., & Rodriguez, A. (2019). PVA/(ligno)nanocellulose biocomposite films. Effect of residual lignin content on structural, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 141, 197–206. DOI: DOI:

Guo, J., Suma, T., Richardson, J. J., & Ejima, H. (2019). Modular assembly of biomaterials using polyphenols as building blocks. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 5, 5578–5596. DOI: DOI:

Han, S., Yao, Q., Jin, C., Fan, B., Zheng, H., & Sun, Q. (2018). Cellulose nanofibers from bamboo and their nanocomposites with polyvinyl alcohol: Preparation and characterization. Polymer Composites, 39, 2611–2619. DOI: DOI:

Hong, K. H. (2016). Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol/tannic acid composite film for topical treatment application. Fibers and Polymers, 17, 1963–1968. DOI: DOI:

Isogai, A. (2013). Wood nanocelluloses: fundamentals and applications as new bio-based nanomaterials. Journal of Wood Science, 59, 449–459. DOI: DOI:

Judawisastra, H., Sitohang, R., Marta, L., & Mardiyati, Y. (2017). Water absorption and its effect on the tensile properties of tapioca starch/polyvinyl alcohol bioplastics. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 223, 012066. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/223/1/012066 DOI:

Kassab, Z., Boujemaoui, A., Ben Youcef, H., Hajlane, A., Hannache, H., & El Achaby, M. (2019). Production of cellulose nanofibrils from alfa fibers and its nanoreinforcement potential in polymer nanocomposites. Cellulose, 26, 9567–9581. DOI: DOI:

Lee, H., You, J., Jin, H.J., & Kwak, H.W. (2020). Chemical and physical reinforcement behavior of dialdehyde nanocellulose in PVA composite film: A comparison of nanofiber and nanocrystal. Carbohydrate Polymers, 232, 115771. DOI: DOI:

Lee, S. Y., Mohan, D.J., Kang, I. A., Doh, G. H., Lee, S., & Han, S. O. (2009). Nanocellulose reinforced PVA composite films: Effects of acid treatment and filler loading. Fibers and Polymers, 10, 77–82. DOI: DOI:

Li, Y., Chen, Y., Wu, Q., Huang, J., Zhao, Y., Li, Q., & Wang, S. (2022). Improved hydrophobic, UV barrier and antibacterial properties of multifunctional PVA nanocomposite films reinforced with modified lignin contained cellulose nanofibers. Polymers, 14 (9), 1705. DOI: DOI:

Limaye, M. V., Schutz, C., Kriechbaum, K., Wohlert, J., Bacsik, Z., Wohlert, M., & Bergstrom, L. (2019). Functionalization and patterning of nanocellulose films by surface-bound nanoparticles of hydrolyzable tannins and multivalent metal ions. Nanoscale, 11, 19278–19284. DOI: DOI:

Liu, B., Zhang, J., & Guo, H. (2022). Research progress of polyvinyl alcohol water-resistant film materials. Membranes, 12 (3), 347. DOI: DOI:

Luzi, F., Pannucci, E., Santi, L., Kenny, J. M. Torre, L., Bernini, R., & Puglia, D. (2019). Gallic acid and quercetin as intelligent and active ingredients in poly(vinyl alcohol) films for food packaging. Polymers, 11, 1999. DOI: DOI:

Mansur, H. S., Sadahira, C. M., Souza, A. N., & Mansur, A. A. P. (2008). FTIR spectroscopy characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with different hydrolysis degree and chemically crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. Materials Science and Engineering, 28, 539–548. DOI: DOI:

Missio, A. L., Gatto, D. A., & Tondi, G. (2019). Exploring tannin extracts: Introduction to new bio-based materials. Revista Ciência da Madeira - RCM, 10, 88–102. DOI: DOI:

Nagalakshmaiah, M., Afrin, S., Maladi, R. P., Elkoun, S., Ansari, M. A., Robert, M., & Karim, Z. (2019). Biocomposites: Present trends and challenges for the future. In: Koronis G., Silva, A. (ed.) Green composites for automotive applications (197–215). DOI: DOI:

Oksman, K., Aitomäki, Y., Mathew, A. P., Siqueira, G., Zhou, Q., Butylina, S., & Hooshmand, S. (2016). Review of the recent developments in cellulose nanocomposite processing. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 83, 2–18. DOI: DOI:

Papuc, C., Goran, G. V., Predescu, C. N., Nicorescu, V., & Stefan, G. (2017). Plant polyphenols as antioxidant and antibacterial agents for shelf-life extension of meat and meat products: Classification, structures, sources, and action mechanisms. Comprehensive Review of Food Science and Food Safety, 16 (6), 1243–1268. DOI: DOI:

Saito, T., Uematsu, T., Kimura, S., Enomae, T., & Isogai, A. (2011). Self-aligned integration of native cellulose nanofibrils towards producing diverse bulk materials. Soft Matter, 7, 8804–8809. DOI: DOI:

Sánchez-Gutiérrez, M., Bascón-Villegas, I., Espinosa, E., Carrasco, E., Pérez-Rodríguez, F., & Rodríguez, A. (2021). Cellulose nanofibers from olive tree pruning as food packaging additive of a biodegradable film. Foods, 10 (7), 1584. DOI: DOI:

Singh, S., Gaikwad, K. K., & Lee, Y. S. (2018). Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of polyvinyl alcohol bio composite films containing seaweed extracted cellulose nano-crystal and basil leaves extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 107, 1879–1887. DOI: DOI:

Spoljaric, S., Salminen, A., Luong, N. D., & Seppälä, J. (2013). Crosslinked nanofibrillated cellulose: poly(acrylic acid) nanocomposite films; enhanced mechanical performance in aqueous environments. Cellulose, 20, 2991–3005. DOI: DOI:

Srithep, Y., Turng, L. S., Sabo, R., & Clemons, C. (2012). Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) nanocomposites: properties, solubility of carbon dioxide, and foaming. Cellulose, 19, 1209–1223. DOI: DOI:

Tan, R., Li, F., Zhang, Y., Yuan, Z., Feng, X., Zhang, W., & Huang, X. (2021). High-performance biocomposite polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films modified with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), tannic acid (TA), and chitosan (CS) for food packaging. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2021, 4821717. DOI:

Vek, V., Šmidovnik, T., Humar, M., Poljanšek, I., & Oven, P. (2023). Comparison of the content of extractives in the bark of the trunk and the bark of the branches of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). Molecules, 28, 225. DOI: DOI:

Vek, V., Keržič, E., Poljanšek, I., Eklund, P., Humar, M., & Oven, P. (2021). Wood extractives of Silver fir and their antioxidant and antifungal properties. Molecules, 26, 6412. DOI: DOI:

Žepič, V., Fabjan, E., Počkaj, M., Cerc Korošec, R., Hančič, A., Oven, P., & Poljanšek, I. (2014). Morphological, thermal, and structural aspects of dried and redispersed nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). Holzforschung, 68, 657–667. DOI: DOI:

Zhou, Y.M., Fu, S.Y., Zheng, L.M., & Zhan, H.Y. (2012). Effect of nanocellulose isolation techniques on the formation of reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films. Express Polymer Letters, 6, 794–804. DOI: DOI:

Zimmermann, T., Pöhler, E., & Geiger, T. (2004). Cellulose fibrils for polymer reinforcement. Advanced Engineering Materials, 6, 754–761. DOI: DOI:






How to Cite

Osolnik, U., Vek, V., Oven, P., & Poljanšek, I. (2023). Biocomposite / bionanocomposite films based on polyvinyl alcohol reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils and different types of tannins. Les/Wood, 72(2), 69-80.

Similar Articles

11-15 of 15

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.