Staining of oil coatings with liquefied wood


  • Matjaž Pavlič dr.
  • Anja Šporar
  • Jure Žigon



liquefied wood, oil, coating, staining


Oils are used to treat wood surfaces for interior and exterior use. The addition of pigments can provide additional visual effects, such as a rustic appearance that highlights the wood pores, while increasing the protective effect of the coating against photochemical decomposition of the wood substrate. In our research, instead of classical pigments we used a natural and renewable raw material, liquefied wood (LW), which we mixed in two proportions with two oils. The mixtures prepared in this way were applied to samples of beech and ash wood. After application, we first monitored the drying rate and also determined surface resistance to cold liquids and dry heat after drying. We also subjected the surfaces to artificial ageing under ultraviolet (UV) light to verify the role of the LW additive. Colour differences were determined performing colour measurements before and after coating and after exposure to UV light. Our research confirmed that LW is compatible with tung oil and Bio impregnol WM oil, and therefore can be used successfully for their staining. We also confirmed that the addition of LW to tung oil does not affect the resistance of surfaces coated in this way to cold liquids, nor the resistance of the surfaces of both oils to dry heat. Unfortunately, the addition of LW to oils slows the drying rate. In addition, we found that coatings stained with LW are not the most stable to light.


Download data is not yet available.


Bence, J. (2013). Lastnosti z bio-premazi obdelanih površin lesa navadnega oreha. Mag. delo. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Odd. za lesarstvo, 43 str.

Budija, F. (2010). Izdelava in karakterizacija zamreženih premazov iz utekočinjenega topolovega lesa. Dokt. disertacija. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Odd. za lesarstvo, 132 str.

Cheumani-Yona, A., Pori, P., Kričej, B., Kutnar, A., Budija, F., Tavzes, Č., & Petrič, M. (2012). Bleaching of liquefied wood for the preparation of aesthetically manageable biomaterials. Journal of biobased materials and bioenergy, 6(5), 601–607.

Čufar, K. (2006). Anatomija lesa. Univerzitetni učbenik. Ljubljana, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za lesarstvo, 185 str.

Demirbaş, A. (2008). Liquefaction of biomass using glycerol. Energy sources, part A: recovery, utilization and environmental effects, 30, 1120–1126.

DIN 53 150. (2007). Beschichtungsstoffe – Bestimmung des Trockengrades von Beschichtungen (Abgewandeltes Bandow-Wolf-Verfahren). Paints and varnishes – Determination of the drying stage of coatings (modified Bandow-Wolff method)

Golob, V., & Golob, D. (2001). Teorija barvne metrike. V: Interdisciplinarnost barve. 1. del. V znanosti, Maribor, 2001. Jeler S., Kumar M. (ur.). Ljubljana, Tiskarna Pleško, 199–230.

Helios. (2017). Naravna in ekološka zaščita za notranje pohištvo z olji in voski bio impregnol. Tehnične informacije, Helios TBLUS d.o.o., Domžale, 2 str.

Kumar, A. P., Petrič, M., Kričej, B., Žigon, J., Tywoniak J., Hajek P., Sever Škapin A., & Pavlič M. (2015). Liquefied wood based polyurethane-nanosilica hybrid coatings and hydrophobization by self-assembled monolayers of orthotrichlorosilane (OTS). ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering, 3(10), 2533–2541.

Kurimoto, Y., Doi, S., & Tamura, Y. (1999). Species effects on wood-liquefaction in polyhydric alcohols. Holzforschung, 53, 617–622.

Merela, M., Humar, M., Kariž, M., Šega, B., Žigon, J., Fajdiga, G., …, & Rajh, D. (2019). WP4 Identification, collection and processing of IAPS: A.4.1 - Analysis of structure and relevant properties of selected IAPS: D 4.1.2 - Laboratory analysis of suitability for processing into wood product for 17 woody IAPS. Ljubljana, Biotehniška fakulteta, Oddelek za lesarstvo, 186 str.

Mihevc, V., Tišler, V., & Kranjc, A. (1994). Odpornost voskanih površin na reagente in toploto. Les, 46(1-2), 10–13.

Osram. (2021). Ultra vitalux 300 W 230 V E27: Data sheet. URL: UV-A-UV-A-Ultraviolet lamps-Industry-Specialty Lighting/com/en/GPS01_1028569/ZMP_60829/ (27. 7. 2021).

Pan, H., Shupe, T. F., & Hse, C. Y. (2007). Characterization of liquefied wood residues from different liquefaction conditions. Journal of applied polymer science, 105, 3739–3746.

Pavlič, M., Kričej, B., & Petrič, M. (2008). Spektrofotometer: instrument za numerično vrednotenje barve in barvnih razlik. Les, 60(1), 22–23.

Petrič, M. (2002a). Površinska obdelana lesenih talnih oblog z naravnimi olji. Korak, 5, 41–42.

Petrič, M. (2002b). Površinska obdelava lesenih talnih oblog z voščenimi premazi. Korak, 6, 38–39.

Pogorelčnik, A. (2017). Ocena primernosti različnih naravnih olj za površinsko obdelavo lesenega nakita. Dipl. projekt. Ljubljana, Univ. v Ljubljani, Biotehniška fakulteta, Odd. za lesarstvo, 30 str.

Sam. (2020). Tungovo olje za površinsko zaščito lesa. Tehnične informacije, SAM Podjetje za komercialni inženiring d.o.o., Domžale, 4 str.

SIST EN 12720. (2014). Pohištvo – Ugotavljanje odpornosti površine proti hladnim tekočinam - Furniture - Assessment of surface resistance to cold liquids.

SIST EN 12722. (2009). Pohištvo – Ugotavljanje odpornosti površine proti suhi toploti - Furniture - Assessment of surface resistance to dry heat (ISO 4211-3:1993 modified).

SIST EN 71-3. (2013). Varnost igrač - 3.del: Migracija določenih elementov. Safety of toys - Part 3: Migration of certain elements.

Teacă, C. A., Roşu, D., Mustaţă, F., Rusu, T., Roşu, L., Roşca, I., & Varganic, C.D. (2019). Natural bio-based products for wood coating. Bioresources, 14(2), 4873–4901.



How to Cite

Pavlič, M., Šporar, A., & Žigon, J. (2024). Staining of oil coatings with liquefied wood. Les/Wood, 73(1), 23–34.



Online First

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>