ANALYSIS OF HAND-FOOT/LEG PREFERENCES AND LATERALITY IN MOVEMENT DIFFICULTIES OF INDIVIDUAL ELITE RHYTHMIC GYMNASTS
Keywords:Rhythmic gymnastics, individual routines, body and apparatus , hand-foot/leg preferences, video analysis
movement difficulties used by individual elite senior rhythmic gymnasts in their routines. In the World Cup Competitions and European Championships held in 2021, the final competition routines (N=75) of gymnasts (N=28) were examined, and body and apparatus difficulties, and the number and rate of use of the preferred side were determined. Since gymnasts participated in more than one competition, their most recent competition routines were included in the research. The data were obtained by analyzing the routines recorded during the competitions. Explanatory statistical analyses of the data were conducted by using the IBM SPSS 25.0 statistical program. In all routines, while higher rates of between 56.2% and 87% were found in the right hand when compared to the left hand in throwing and catching, higher rates were found in the hoop and ribbon apparatus in throwing with the left foot when compared to the right foot. In the right foot/leg catches, the highest rates were observed in the hoop apparatus (49.6%). Left foot usage preferences were observed at rates varying between 65.1% and 97.4% in jumps/leaps difficulties and between 58% and 71% in balance difficulties. In rotation difficulties, the use of the right foot had higher rates of between 72.6% and 80% when compared to the left foot. Gymnasts showed a tendency to use the right hand predominantly in throws and catches, the left foot in jumps/leaps and balances, and the right foot in rotations.
Batista Santos, A., Bobo Arce, M., Lebre, E., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2015). Flexibility in Rhythmic Gymnastics: Functional Asymmetry in Portuguese Junior Gymnasts. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 120, 19-26. https://doi.org/10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2015/2).120.03
Batista, A., Garganta, R., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2019). Flexibility and functional asymmetry in rhythmic gymnastics. Athens Journal of Sports, 6(2), 77-94.
Castañer, M., Andueza, J., Hileno, R., Puigarnau, S., Prat, Q., & Camerino, O. (2018). Profiles of motor laterality in young athletes' performance of complex movements: merging the MOTORLAT and PATHoops Tools. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 916.
Cochet, H. & Byrne, R.W. (2013). Evolutionary origins of human handedness: evaluating contrasting hypotheses. Anim. Cogn. 16, 531–542. doi:10.1007/s10071-013-0626 y
Elias, L. J., Bryden, M. P., & Bulman-Fleming, M. B. (1998). Footedness is a better predictor than is handedness of emotional lateralization. Neuropsychologia, 36(1), 37-43.
Elliott, D., & Roy, E. A. (1996). Manual asymmetries in motor performance. CRC Press.
Faurie, C., & Raymond, M. (2004). Handedness frequency over more than ten thousand years. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 271(suppl_3), S43-S45.
Faurie, C., Raymond, M., & Uomini, N. (2016). Origins, development, and persistence of laterality in humans. In F. Loffing, N. Hagemann, B. Strauss, & C. MacMahon (Eds.), Laterality in sports: Theories and applications (pp. 11–30). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801426-4.00002-X
Federation Internationale De Gymnastique (FIG), (2017). Code de pointage GR 2017-2020, Version mise à jour valable dès le 1er février 2018.
Frutuoso, A. S., Diefenthaeler, F., Vaz, M. A., & Freitas, C. (2016). Lower limb asymmetries in rhythmic gymnastics athletes. International journal of sports physical therapy, 11(1), 34-43.
Gilbert, A. N., & Wysocki, C. J. (1992). Hand preference and age in the United States. Neuropsychologia, 30(7), 601-608.
Heil, J., Loffing, F., & Büsch, D. (2020). The influence of exercise-induced fatigue on Inter-Limb asymmetries: a systematic review. Sports Medicine-Open, 6(1), 1-16.
Heinen, T., Bermeitinger, C., & von Laßberg, C. (2016). Laterality in individualized sports. In F. Loffing, N. Hagemann, B. Strauss, & C. MacMahon (Eds.), Laterality in sports: Theories and applications (pp. 227-247). Elsevier Academic Press.
İpek, F., Doğan, M., Yıldız Kabak, V., Atasavun Uysal, S., & Düger, T. (2021). Cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability of Turkish version of the Waterloo Handedness and Footedness Questionnaire-Revised. Laterality, 26(6), 624-644.
Jastrejevskaya, N. (1995). Rhythmic Sportive Gymnastics. Theory and Practice, FIG, 477-524.
Jastrjembskaia, N., & Titov, Y. (1999). Rhythmic gymnastics. Human Kinetics 127-190.
Kalaycıoğlu, C., Kara, C., Atbaşoğlu, C., & Nalçacı, E. (2008). Aspects of foot preference: Differential relationships of skilled and unskilled foot movements with motor asymmetry. Laterality, 13(2), 124-142.
Loffing, F., Hagemann, N., Strauss, B., & MacMahon, C. (Eds.). (2016). Laterality in sports: Theories and applications. Elsevier Academic Press.
Loffing, F., Sölter, F., & Hagemann, N. (2014). Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences. PloS one, 9(8), e105800.
Musalek, M. (2015). Skilled performance tests and their use in diagnosing handedness and footedness at children of lower school age 8–10. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1513.
Oldfield, R. C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: the Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9(1), 97-113.
Packheiser, J., Schmitz, J., Berretz, G., Carey, D. P., Paracchini, S., Papadatou-Pastou, M., & Ocklenburg, S. (2020). Four meta-analyses across 164 studies on atypical footedness prevalence and its relation to handedness. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-21.
Parrington, L., & Ball, K. (2016). Biomechanical considerations of laterality in sport. In F. Loffing, N. Hagemann, B. Strauss, & C. MacMahon (Eds.), Laterality in sports: Theories and applications (pp. 279-308). Elsevier Academic Press.
Peters, M. (1988). Footedness: asymmetries in foot preference and skill and neuropsychological assessment of foot movement. Psychological bulletin, 103(2), 179.
Peters, M., Reimers, S., & Manning, J. T. (2006). Hand preference for writing and associations with selected demographic and behavioral variables in 255,100 subjects: the BBC internet study. Brain and cognition, 62(2), 177-189.
Prieur, J., Barbu, S., & Blois-Heulin, C. (2017). Assessment and analysis of human laterality for manipulation and communication using the Rennes laterality questionnaire. Royal society open science, 4(8), 170035. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.170035
Radaš, J., & Bobić, T. T. (2011). Posture in top-level Croatian rhythmic gymnasts and non-trainees. Kinesiology, 43(1).
Rogers, L. J. (2021). Brain Lateralization and Cognitive Capacity. Animals, 11(7), 1996. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11071996
Sainburg, R. L. (2016). Laterality of basic motor control mechanisms: Different roles of the right and left brain hemispheres. In F. Loffing, N. Hagemann, B. Strauss, & C. MacMahon (Eds.), Laterality in sports: Theories and applications (pp. 155-177). Elsevier Academic Press.
Shigaki, L., Rabello, L. M., Camargo, M. Z., Santos, V. B. D. C., Gil, A. W. D. O., Oliveira, M. R. D., ... & Macedo, C. D. S. G. (2013). Comparative analysis of one-foot balance in rhythmic gymnastics athletes. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 19 (2), 104-107.
Utesch, T., Mentzel, S. V., Strauss, B., & Büsch, D. (2016). Measurement of laterality and its relevance for sports. In F. Loffing, N. Hagemann, B. Strauss, & C. MacMahon (Eds.), Laterality in sports: Theories and applications (pp. 65–86). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801426-4.00004-3
Ziyagil, M. A. (2011). Handedness and footedness: relations to differences in sprinting speed and multiple sprints performance in prepubertal boys. Perceptual and motor skills, 112(2), 440-450.
- 2023-02-26 (2)
- 2023-02-24 (1)