• Vasiliki Kaioglou National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece
  • Konstantinos Karteroliotis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece
  • Maria Koutsouba National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece
  • Fotini Venetsanou National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Greece



Motor competence, Physical fitness, Physical activity, Health-related fitness knowledge, Motivation


Children, especially girls, do not demonstrate physical activity (PA) and physical literacy (PL) levels associated with sufficient health benefits. Gymnastics is thought to be a suitable field for reinforcing children’s PL and related elements, such as PA. This study aimed at assessing the PL level of female recreational gymnasts to detect areas of sufficient and insufficient development in their PL. For that, 101 8-12-year-old girls (Mage=10.1±1.4), who participated in recreational gymnastics programs for at least one year (Myears=3.7±2.0), were assessed by using the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy (CAPL-2). Average scores (M±SD) for total PL and its related elements were calculated for all participants. Accordingly, each of them was classified into one out of the four CAPL-2’s interpretive categories, indicating whether she was at a non-recommended (“beginning”, “progressing”) or recommended level (“achieving”, excelling”). Regression analysis examined the association of total PL score with participants’ age and years of participation in gymnastics. Although the female gymnasts, similarly to same-age children worldwide, did not present adequate PL level, their fitness was sufficiently developed and they were excessively motivated/confident for PA. Adversely, other PL elements, i.e., their motor competence, PA knowledge, PA participation, were below the recommended levels, indicating deficiencies in their PL development. Age was associated with total PL (b=.440, p=.0001), whereas the years of gymnastics’ participation were not (b=.090, p=.325). Participation in recreational gymnastics is important for enhancing several PL elements of female gymnasts; however, for developing the entire range of PL elements, the implementation of multicomponent gymnastics programs must be prioritized.


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How to Cite

Kaioglou, V., Karteroliotis, K., Koutsouba, M., & Venetsanou, F. (2022). PHYSICAL LITERACY OF FEMALE RECREATIONAL GYMNASTS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 14(1), 45–57.