ACUTE EFFECTS OF BILATERAL AND UNILATERAL WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON JUMPING ABILITY, ASYMMETRY, AND BILATERAL DEFICIT ON FORMER ARTISTIC GYMNASTS
Keywords:Bilateral deficit, Single leg vertical jump, Asymmetry
Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been used to improve jumping ability, muscle strength, power, and performance in various sports. Bilateral deficit (BLD) is defined as the difference in the magnitude of the maximum force during single or double support. The present study investigated the effect of unilateral and bilateral whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise on jumping ability, asymmetry and BLD on former artistic gymnasts. Twenty-eight former artistic gymnasts volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed 4 experimental protocols on nonconsecutive days in a random order. Each protocol included a 3-min-warm-up running on the treadmill at 2.22 m.s -1, followed by a 2-min rest. The intervention protocols were: a) WBV with feet [bipedal] (WBVB), b) WBV with single foot [unilateral] (WBVU), c) WBVB with the device turn-off (NWBVB), and d) WBVU with the device turn-off (NWBVU). The dependent variables were the squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) with both feet (bilateral) and with single leg (unilateral). Results showed a significant interaction effect between the condition and time on SJ on both condition (bilateral and unilateral) and CMJ, whereas significant main effect was found for the condition and for time on SJ. Conclusively, the WBV unilateral condition improves significantly lower limbs symmetry during SJ performance. Further, bilateral WBV (WBV B) was the most effective condition on bilateral and unilateral SJ and CMJ performance.
Atkins, S. J., Bentley, I., Hurst, H. T., Sinclair, J. K., & Hesketh, C. (2016). The presence of bilateral imbalance of the lower limbs in elite youth soccer players of 7 different ages. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30, 1007-1013.
Bailey, C. A., Sato, K., Burnett, A., and Stone, M. H. (2015). Carry-over of force production symmetry in athletes of differing strength levels. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29, 3188 -3196.
Bell, D. R., Sanfilippo, J. L., Binkley, N., & Heiderscheit, B. C. (2014). Lean mass asymmetry influences force and power asymmetry during jumping in collegiate athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28, 884-891.
Bobbert, M. F., Gerritsen, K. G., Litjens, M. C., Van Soest, A. J. (1996). Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 11, 1402-1412.
Bogdanis, G. C., Tsoukos, A., Kalkoiheri, O., Terzis, G., Veligekas, P., Brown, L. (2019). Comparison between unilateral and bilateral plyometric training on sihgle- and double-leg jumping performance and strength. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33, 3, 633-640.
Bosco, C., Cardinale, M., Tsarpela, O. (1999). Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles. European Journal of Applied Physiology Occupational Physiology, 79, 306-311.
Botton, C. E., Radaelli, R., Wilhelm, E. N., Rech, A., Brown, L. E., and Pinto, R. S. (2015). Neuromuscular Adaptations to Unilateral vs. Bilateral Strength Training in Women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 1,1924-1932.
Cardinale, M., Bosco, C. (2003). The use of vibration as an exercise intervention. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 31, 3-7.
Ceroni, D., Martin, X. E., Delhumeau, C., and Farpour-Lambert, N. J. (2012). Bilateral and gender differences during single-legged vertical jump performance in healthy teenagers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 2, 452–457.
Chelly, M. S., Ghenem, M. A., Abid, K., Hermassi, S., Tabka, Z., Shephard, R. (2010). Effects of in-season short-term plyometric training program on leg power, jump- and sprint performance of soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24, 2670–2676.
Cochrane, D. J., Stannard, S. R. (2005). Acute whole body vibration training increases vertical jump and flexibility performance in elite female field hockey players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 860–865.
Cormie, P., Deane, R. S., Triplett, N. T., McBride, J. M. (2006). Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 27-61.
Costa, E. C., Moreira, A., Cavalcanti, B., Krinski, K., & Aoki, M. S. (2015). Effect of unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise on maximal voluntary strength, total volume of load lifted, and perceptual and metabolic responses. Biology of Sport, 32, 35-40.
Croisier, J. L., Ganteaume, S., Binet, J., Genty, M., and Ferret, J. M. (2008). Strength imbalances and prevention of hamstring injury in professional soccer players: A prospective study. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36, 1469–1475.
Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P. (2013). The effect of two different conditions of whole-body vibration on flexibility and jumping performance of artistic gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5, 2, 67 – 77.
Dallas, G., Paradisis, G., Mellos, V. (2013). The effect of 4-week interrupted intervention program of different method of stretching on hamstring’s flexibility. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13, 4, 517-521.
Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P., Mellos, V. (2014). The acute effect of Whole-Body Vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts. Biology of Sport, 31, 3, 233-237.
Dallas, G., Paradisis, G., Kirialanis, P., Mellos, V., Argitaki, P., Smirniotou, A. (2015). The acute effects of different training loads of whole-body vibration on flexibility and explosive strength of lower limbs in divers. Biology of Sport, 32, 235-241.
Dallas, G., Tsopani, D., Papouliakos, S., Riga, M., Korres, G. (2016). The acute effect of whole-body vibration training on postural control of elite rhythmic gymnasts. Swedish Journal of Scientific Research, 3, 11, 25-33.
Dallas, G., Dallas, C., Tsolakis, C. (2019). Acute enhancement of jumping performance after different plyometric stimuli in high level gymnasts is associated with post activation potentiation. Medicinna dello Sport, 72, 1, 25-36.
Ford, K. R., Myer, G. D., Smith, R. L. & Hewett, T. E. (2003). Valgus knee motion during landing in high school female and male basketball players. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1745-1750.
Hakkinen, K., Kallinen, M., Linnamo, V., Pastinen, U. M., Kraemer, W. J. (1996). Neuromuscular adaptations during bilateral versus unilateral strength training in middle-aged and elderly men and women. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 158, 77-87.
Hart, N. H., Nimphius, S., Weber, J., Spiteri, T., Rantalainen, T., Dobbin, M., and Newton, R. U. (2016). Musculoskeletal asymmetry in football athletes: A product of limb function over time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 8, 1379-1387.
Howard, J. D., and Enoka, R. M. (1991). Maximum bilateral contractions are modified by neurally mediated interlimb effects. Journal of Applied Physiology, 70, 306–316.
Jacobs, P. L., Burns, P. (2009). Acute enhancement of lower-extremity dynamic strength and flexibility with whole-body vibration. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 51-57.
Keeley, D. W., Plummer, H. A., Oliver, G. D. (2011). Predicting asymmetrical lower extremity strength deficits in college-aged men and women using common horizontal and vertical power field tests: A possible screening mechanism. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25, 1632-1637.
Kim, J., Park, Y., Seo, Y., Kang, G., Park, S., Cho, H., Moon, H., Kim, M., Yu, J. (2016). The effects of whole-body vibration exercise on isokinetic muscular function of the knee and jump performance depending on squatting position. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28, 159–161.
Kivlan, B. R., Martin, R. L. (2012). Functional performance testing of the hip in athletes: a systematic review for reliability and validity. International Journals Sports Physical Therapy, 7, 402–412.
Kuruganti, U., Parker, P., Rickards, J., Tingley, M., and Sexsmith, J. (2005). Bilateral isokinetic training reduces the bilateral leg strength deficit for both old and young adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 175–179.
Kuruganti, U., Murphy, T. (2008). Bilateral deficit expressions and myoelectric signal activity during submaximal and maximal isometric knee extensions in young, athletic males. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 102, 721-726.
Lapole, T., Perot, C. (2010). Effects of repeated Achilles’ tendon vibration on triceps surae force production. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20, 648-654.
Lilley, E. S., Bradshaw, E. J., & Rice, V. J. (2007). Is jumping and landing technique symmetrical in female gymnasts? In H-J. Menzel, & M.H. Chagas (Eds.), XXV International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports Proceedings, Federal University of the State of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, Ouro Preto (p. 345-348).
Marin, P. J., Hazell, T. J., Garcia-Gutierrez, M. T., & Cochrane, D. J. (2014). Acute unilateral leg vibration exercise improves contralateral neuromuscular performance. Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interact, 14, 1, 58-67.
Marin, P. J., Bunker, D., Rhea, M. R., Ayllon, F. N. (2009). Neuromuscular activity during whole-body vibration of different amplitudes and foot wear conditions: Implications for prescription of vibratory stimulation. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 2311-2316.
Mayer, F., Schlumberger, A., Van Cingel, R., Henrotin, Y., Laube, W., Schmidtbleicher, D. (2003). Training and testing in open versus closed kinetic chain. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 11, 181–187.
McCurdy, K. W., Langford, G. A., Doscher, M. W., Wiley, L. P., Mallard, K. G. (2005). The effects of short-term unilateral and bilateral lower-body resistance training on measures of strength and power. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 19, 9–15.
Mischi, M., Cardinale, M. (2009). The effects of a 28-Hz vibration on arm muscle activity during isometric exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 645-653.
Murphy, D. F., Connolly, D. A. J., Beynnon, B. D. (2003). Risk factors for lower extremity injury: A review of the literature. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37, 13–29.
Myer, G. D., Brent, J. L., Ford, K. R., & Hewett, T .E. (2011). Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injury in female athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 33, 3, 21-35.
Newton, R. U., Gerber, A., Nimphius, S., Shin, J., Doan, B. K., Robertson, M., Pearson, D. R., Graig, B. W., Hakkinen, K., Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Determination of functional strength imbalance of the lower extremities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20, 971–977.
O’Donnell, S., Thomas, S. G., Marks, P. (2006). Improving the sensitivity of the hop index in patients with an ACL deficient knee by transforming the hop distance scores. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 7, 9.
Park, G. D., Lee, J. C., Lee, J. (2014). The effect of low extremity plyometric training on back muscle power of high school throwing event athletes. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 26, 161–164.
Petit, P-D., Pensini, M., Tessaro, J., Desnuelle, C., Legros, P., Colson, S. S. (2010). Optimal whole body vibration settings for muscle strength and power enhancement in human knee extensors. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 20, 1186-1195.
Petschnig, R., Baron, R., Albrecht, M. (1998). The relationship between isokinetic quadriceps strength test and hop tests for distance and one-legged vertical jump test following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Journal of Orthopethic and Sports Physical Therapy, 28, 23–31.
Ramirez-Campillo, R., Burgos, C. H., Henríquez-Olguín, C., Andrade, D. C., Martínez, C., Álvarez, C., Castro-Sepúlveda, M., Marques, M. C., Izquierdo, M. (2015). Effect of unilateral, bilateral, and combined plyometric training on explosive and endurance performance of young soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29, 1317 -1328.
Rejc, E., Lazzer, S., Antonutto, G., Isola, M., di Prampero, P. E. (2010). Bilateral deficit and EMG activity during explosive lower limb contractions against different overloads. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 108, 157-165.
Rhea, M. R., Kenn, J. G. (2009). The effect of acute applications of whole-body vibration on the iTonic platform on subsequent lower-body power output during the back squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 23, 58-61.
Rønnestad, B. R. (2004). Comparing the performance-enhancing effects of squats on a vibration platform with conventional squats in recreationally resistance-trained men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18, 839–845.
Rouissi, M., Chtara, M., Owen, A., Chaalali, A., Chaouachi, A., Gabbett, T., Chamari, K. (2016). Effect of leg dominance on change of direction ability amongst young elite soccer players. Journal of Sports Science, 34, 542-548.
Sale, D. G. (1992). Neural adaptation to strength training: In: P.V. Komi (Eds.), Strength and power in Sport (p. 249-265). London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Sato, K., & Heise, G. D. (2012). Influence of 1 weight distribution asymmetry on the biomechanics of a barbell squat. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26, 342-349.
Shin, S., Lee, K., Song, C. (2015). Acute effects of unilateral whole body vibration training on single leg vertical jump height and symmetry in healthy men. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27, 12, 3923-3928.
Speirs, D. E., Bennett, M. A., Finn, C. V., and Turner, A. P. (2016). Unilateral vs. Bilateral Squat Training for Strength, Sprints, and Agility in Academy Rugby Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30, 386–92.
Stephens, T. M., Lawson, B. R., DeVoe, D. E., Reiser, R. F. (2007). Gender and bilateral differences in single-leg countermovement jump performance with comparison to a double-leg jump. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23, 190–202.
Taniguchi, Y. (1998). Relationship between the modifications of bilateral deficit in upper and lower limbs by resistance training in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupation Physiology, 78, 3, 226–230.
Torvinen, S., Kannus, P., Sievänen, H., Järvinen, T. A. H., Pasanen, M., Kontulainen, S., Järvinen, T. L. N., Järvinen, M., Oja, P., Vuori, I. (2002). Effect of four-month vertical whole-body vibration on performance and balance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34, 1523–1528.
Tsopani, D., Dallas, G., Tsiganos, G., Papouliakos, S., Di Cagno, A., Korres, G., Riga, M., Korres, St. (2014). Short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on balance, flexibility and lower limb explosive strength in elite rhythmic gymnasts. Human Movement Science, 33, 149-158.
Yapicioglu, B., Colakoglu, M., Colakoglou, Z., Gulluoglu, H., Bademkiran, F., Ozkaya, O. (2013). Effects of a dynamic warm-up, static stretching or static stretching with tendon vibration on vertical jump performance and EMG responses. Journal of Human Kinetics, 39, 49-57.
Young, W. B., James, R., Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running speed with changes of direction? Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 42, 282–288.