• Johanna Weber Neurocognition and Action – Biomechanics, Bielefeld University, Germany & Institute for sports science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Germany Germany



Body fat percentage, Disciplines, Performance, Gender, Motivation


Performance in many competitive sports is limited by motivation as well as constitutional factors. In this paper the question is addressed whether motivation is related to performance in wheel gymnastics and whether the manifestation of motivation is related to gender, performance level or competitive discipline. To this end, 203 German wheel gymnasts of varying performance level were studied. Different levels of motivation, competitive results and percentages of body fat were found in different groups of gymnasts: gymnasts performing in all-around/ straight line male and female athletes and in gymnasts competing at different performance levels. Also, female and male gymnasts differed significantly in body fat percentage, age and overall merit. Differences between performance levels underline the importance of individual coaching regarding, e. g., hope for success (p ≤ 0.003, η2 = 0.108) and other performance limiting factors. Further, individual coaching for athletes competing in different disciplines seems necessary, as shown by differences in the overall performance motive (p ≤ 0.033, η2 = 0.042). Therefore, each group of athletes should receive coaching tailored to their needs during training and performance that considers their individual background and circumstances, in order to optimize performance.


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