CONCERNS ABOUT STRENGTH TESTS IN GYMNASTICS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Keywords:gymnastic, trampoline, muscle strength, motor tests
This study aims to analyze the specialized literature on the protocols, instruments, and techniques used to train and assess strength in gymnastics practitioners or athletes who are represented by the International Gymnastics Federation (Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique – FIG). The systematic review was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Systematic searches on the PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, and SPORTDiscus databases were conducted using the following keywords: “assessment,” OR “measurement,” OR “evaluation,” AND “child*,” OR “young,” OR “adolesc*,” AND “athlete*,” OR “practitioner,” OR “gymnast*,” AND “gymnastic*,” OR “trampoline,” AND “muscle strength,” OR “muscle power,” OR “strength,” OR “power,” OR “concentric,” OR “performance,” OR “explosive strength,” OR “motor tests”. Studies included in this review address the assessment and training of strength in gymnastics or athletes. Fourteen studies assessing the physical capacity strength in practitioners or gymnastic athletes were the basis of this systematic review. These articles describe low-cost, easy-to-apply protocols and instruments performed in the training gym. The included articles focused on assessing the strength level of adolescent male and female practitioners or athletes for talent selection and detection, as well as lesion reduction. Despite the benefits of strength training, such as better performance and fewer injuries, in general, strength is not regularly assessed. Only studies encompassing artistic and rhythmic gymnastics were found.
Abuwarda, K. (2020). The Effectiveness of Cross Training on Mental Toughness, Development of Special Physical Abilities, and The Degree of Skilled Performance in Aerobic Gymnastics. International Journal of Sports Science and Arts, 16, 122-140. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21608/eijssa.2020.43401.1049
Acero, R. M., Olmo, M. F., Sánchez, J. A., Otero, X. L., Aguado, X., & Rodríguez, F.A. (2011). Reliability of squat and countermovement jump tests in children 6 to 8 years of age. Pediatric Exercise Science, 23, 151-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.23.1.151
Aleksic-Veljkovic, A., Djurovic, D., Dimic, I., Mujanovic, R., & Zivcic-Markovic, K. (2016). College athletes’ perceptions of coaching behaviours: Differences between individual and team sports. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 2(101), 61-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33607/bjshs.v2i101.57
Andreyeva, N. O. (2013). Key elements of sports techniques of ball throwing and catching by those engaged in rhythmic gymnastics at the stage of preliminary basic preparation. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 13(1), 46-52.
Bacciotti, S., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., Gaya, A., & Maia, J. (2019). Motor performance of brazilian female artistic gymnasts: Insights via multilevel analysis. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(2), 139-150.
Batista, A., Garganta, R., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2017). Strength in young rhythmic gymnasts. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(4), 1162-1175. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.124.03
Batista, A., Garganta, R., & Ávila-Carvalho, L. (2019). Strength in Portuguese rhythmic gymnasts of different competition levels. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(2), 1213-1221.
Ceklic, U., & Sarabon, N. (2021). Comparison between gymnasts and non-gymnasts in isometric strength of the lower limbs. European Journal of Translational Myology, 31(1), 9663. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4081/ejtm.2021.9663
Cooper, A. R., Goodman, A., Page, A. S., Sherar, L. B., Esliger, D. W., Sluijs, E. M. F., Andersen, L. B., Anderssen, S., Cardon, G., Davey, R., Froberg, K., Hallal, P., Janz, K. F., Kordas, K., Kreimler, S., Pate, R. R., Puder, J. J., Reilly, J. J., Salmon, J., Sardinha, L. B., Timperio, A., & Ekelund, U. (2015). Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth: The International children’s accelerometry database (ICAD). International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 12(1), 113. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-015-0274-5
Dallas, J., Pappas, P., Ntallas, C., & Paradisis, G. (2018). The post-activation effect with two different conditioning stimuli on drop jump performance in pre-adolescent female gymnasts. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(4), 2368-2374.
Dias, H., Aleksandrova, N., Lebre, E., Bobo, M., & Fink, H. (2019). Age Group development and Competition Program for Rhythmic Gymnastics. Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique, 2.
Dobrijevic, S. M., Moskovljevic, L., Markovic, M., & Dabovic, M. (2018). Effects of proprioceptive training on explosive strenght, agility and coordination of Young rhythmic gymnasts. Physical Culture, 72(1), 71-79. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/fizkul1801071D
Douda, H., Avloniti, A., Kasabalis, A., & Tokmakidis, S. P. (2007). Adaptations on Physical Performance Characteristics after a 6-Month Specific Training in Rhythmic Gymnasts. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 22, 10-17. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21091/mppa.2007.1003
Feeley, B. T., Agel, J., & LaPrade, R. F. (2016). When Is It Too Early for Single Sport Specialization? The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 44(1), 234-341. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515576899
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique - FIG. (2021). Disciplines: History. Rules.
French, D. N., Gómez, A. L., Volek, J. S., Rubin, M. R., Ratamess, N. A., Sharman, M. J., Gotshalk, L. A., Sebastianelli, W. J., Putukian, M., Newton, R. U.,HakKkinem, K., Fleck, S. J., & Kraemer, W. J. (2004). Longitudinal tracking of muscular power changes of NCAA division I collegiate women gymnasts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(1), 101-107. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200402000-00015
Gomez-Bruton, A., Gabel, L., Nettlefold, L., Macdonald, H., Race, D., & McKay, H. (2019). Estimation of peak muscle power from a countermovement vertical jump in children and adolescentes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 33(2), 390-398. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000002002
Hall, E., Bishop, D. C., & Gee, T. I. (2016). Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts. PLoS ONE, 11(2), e0148790. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148790
Hammoudi-Nassib, S., Mkaouer, M., Riahi, S. H., Sameh Menzli Wali, S. M., & Nassib, S. (2020). Prediction of Gymnastics Physical Profile Through an International Program Evaluation in Women Artistic Gymnastics. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 34(2), 577-586. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001902
Karagianni, K., Donti, O., Katsikas, C., & Bogdanis, G. C. (2020). Efects of Supplementary Strength–Power Training on Neuromuscular Performance in Young Female Athletes. Sports (Basel, Switzerland), 8(8), 104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/sports8080104
Kerr, Z. Y., Hayden, R., Barr, M., Klossner, D. A., & Dompier, T. P. (2015). Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women’s Gymnastics Injuries, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014. Journal of Athletic Training, 50(8), 870-878. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-50.7.02
Kochanowicz, A., Kochanowicz, K., Niespodzinski, B., Mieszkowski, J., Aschenbrenner, P., Bielec, G., & Szark-Eckardt, M. (2016). Maximal power of the lower limbs of youth gymnasts and biomechanical indicators of the forward handspring vault versus the sports result. Journal of Human Kinetics, 53, 33-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2016-0008
Law, M. P., Côté, J., & Ericsson, K. (2008). Characteristics of expert development in rhythmic gymnastics: A retrospective study. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5, 82-103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2008.9671814
Longo, A. F., Siffredi, C. R., Cardey, M. L., Aquilino, G. D., & Lentini, N. A. (2016). Age of peak performance in Olympic sports: A comparative research among disciplines. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 11(1), 31-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2016.111.03
Malina, R. M. (2001). Physical activity and fitness: pathways from childhood to adulthood. American Journal of Human Biology, 13, 162-172. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6300(200102/03)13:2<162::AID-AJHB1025>3.0.CO;2-T
Malina, R. M., Baxter-Jones, A. D. G., Armstrong , N., Beunen, G. P., Caine, D., Daly, R. M., Lewis, R. D., Rogol, A. D., & Russell, K. (2013). Role of Intensive Training in the Growth and Maturation of Artistic Gymnasts. Sports Medicine, 43, 783-802. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0058-5
Mkaouer, B., Hammoudi-Nassib, S., Amara, S., & Chaabène, H. (2018). Evaluating the physical and basic gymnastics skills assessment for talent identification in men’s artistic gymnastics proposed by the International Gymnastics Federation. Biology of Sport, 35(4), 383-392. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2018.78059
Mlsnová, G. (2016). Effects of a 6-month conditioning programo n motor and sport performance in the group of children’s fitness competitors. Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae, 56(2), 115-128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/afepuc-2016-0010
Mohamed, G. A. (2011). Effects of complex training on certain physical variables and performance level of landing in floor exercise. Science, Movement and Health, 11(2), 171-175.
Russel, K. W., Quinney, H. A., Hazlett, C. B., & Hillis, D. (1995). Knee muscle strength in elite male gymnasts. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Jul;22(1):10-7. doi: 10.2519/jospt.19126.96.36.199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19188.8.131.52
Russo, L., Palermi, S., Dhahbi, W., Kalinski, S. D., Bragazzi, N. L., & Padulo, J. (2021). Selected components of physical fitness in rhythmic and artistic youth gymnast. Sport Sciences for Health, 17, 415-421. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00713-8
Sawczyn, S., Zasada, M., Kochanowicz, A., Niespodziński, B., Sawczyn, M., & Mishchenko, V. (2016). The effect of specific strength training on the quality of gymnastic elements execution in young gymnasts. Baltic Journal of Health and Physical Activity, 8(4), 79-91. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29359/BJHPA.08.4.09
Scharer, C., Haller, N., Taube, W., & Hubner, K. (2019). Physical determinants of vault performance and their age-related differences across male junior and elite top-level gymnasts. Plos One, 14(12), e0225975. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225975
Sleeper, M. D., Kenyon, L. K., & Casey, E. (2012). Measuring fitness in female gymnasts: The gymnastics functional measurement tool. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 7(2), 124-138.
Sleeper, M. D., Kenyon, L. K., Elliott, J. M., & Cheng, M. S. (2016). Measuring sport-specific physical abilities in male gymnasts: The men’s gymnastics functional measurement tool. The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy, 11(7), 1082-1100.
Teramoto, M., Cross, C. L., & Willick, S. E. (2016). Predictive value of national football league scouting combine on future performance of running backs and wide receivers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(5), 1379-1390. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001202
USA Gymnastics. (2014). Talent Opportunity Program – testing manual. https://usagym.org/pages/women/video/tops.html.