SELF-REGULATION OF GYMNASTIC SKILLS LEARNING IN INITIAL TRAINING: STUDENT-CENTERED STRATEGIES
Keywords:higher education, decision-making, gymnastics, autonomy support, collaboration
Within the framework of the perspectives of self-determination, self-control and self-regulation, this research analyses the management of difficulties encountered during the implementation of strategies to support autonomy and collaboration in gymnastic learning. The approach of the study is qualitative and is based on the experiences of university students of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences, using personal diaries during classroom practice as an information tool. The data analysis is carried out using AQUAD 7 software. The results show that during the learning process, students experience difficulties associated with anxiety, especially in the final moments of educational process, together with perceptions of gymnastic incompetence, which decreases as the training period ends. As a response to coping with learning difficulties, students mainly resort to personal reflection, adopt attitudes of victimisation and, to a lesser extent, turn to their peers to help solve their problems, among others. The high level of the sense of victimisation in high pressure situations reveals the need to design emotional management strategies to reduce students' resistance to assessment tasks that can damage and distort the action achieved in the learning process and reduce self-control.
Ahsan, M., & Kumar, A. (2016). Study of the relationship between test anxiety and study habits of Physical Education students. International Journal of Sports and Physical Education, 2(3), 7-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.20431/2454-6380.0203002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.20431/2454-6380.0203002
Bayraktar, G. (2011). The effect of cooperative learning on students' approach to general gymnastics course and academic achievements. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(1), 62-71.
Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(6), 351-355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2007.00534.x
Collins, K. E., Overson, C. E., & Benassi, V. A. (2020). Team-Based learning in a coaching education course: Impact on student learning. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 39(1), 28-35. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0223 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2018-0223
Curran, T., Hill, A. P., Ntoumanis, N., Hall, H. K., & Jowett, G. E. (2016). A three-wave longitudinal test of self-determination theory’s mediation model of engagement and disaffection in youth sport. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 38(1), 15-29. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.2015-0016
Ekkekakis, P., & Brand, R. (2019). Affective responses to and automatic affective valuations of physical activity: Fifty years of progress on the seminal question in exercise psychology. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 42, 130-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.12.018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.12.018
Englert, C. (2016). The strength model of self-control in sport and exercise psychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 314. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00314 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00314
Englert, C., & Bertrams, A. (2015). Integrating attentional control theory and the strength model of self-control. Frontiers of Psychology, 6, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00824 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00824
Fernández-Río, J., Calderón, A., Hortigüela, D., Pérez-Pueyo, A., & Aznar, M. (2016). Modelos pedagógicos en Educación Física: Consideraciones teórico-prácticas para docentes. Revista Española de Educación Física y Deporte, 413, 55-75.
Fletcher, T., & Casey, A. (2014). The challenges of models-based practice in physical education teacher education: A collaborative self-study. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3), 403-421. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2013-0109 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2013-0109
Giacobbi, P., & Weinsberg, R. (2000). An examination of coping in sport: Individual trait anxiety differences and situational consistency. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 42-62. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.14.1.42 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.14.1.42
Gil-Arias, A., Claver, F., Práxedes, A., Villar, F. D., & Harvey, S. (2020). Autonomy support, motivational climate, enjoyment, and perceived competence in physical education: Impact of a hybrid teaching games for understanding/sport education unit. European Physical Education Review, 26(1), 36-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X18816997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1356336X18816997
Haerens, L., Vansteenkiste, M., De Meester, A., Delrue, J., Tallir, I., Vande Broek, G., & Aelterman, N. (2018). Different combinations of perceived autonomy support and control: identifying the most optimal motivating style. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 23(1), 16-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2017.1346070 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2017.1346070
Hagger, M., Wood, C., Stiff, C., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. (2010). Ego depletion and the strength model of self-control: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 495-525. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019486 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/a0019486
Hastie, P. A. & Casey, A. (2014). Fidelity in models-based practice research in sport pedagogy: A guide for future investigations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3), 422–431. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2013-0141 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2013-0141
Hill, Y., Den Hartigh, R. J., Meijer, R., & De Jonge, P. (2018). Resilience in sports from a dynamical perspective. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 4, 333-341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spy0000118 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000118
Huber, G. L., & Gürtler, L. (2015). AQUAD 7. Manual del programa para analizar datos cualitativos. Softwarevertrieb Günter Huber.
Jha, S. K. (2018). Narrative texts in narrative inquiry: Interpretive voices to better understand experiences in given space and time. Open Journal Leaders, 7, 237-249. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2018.74014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4236/ojl.2018.74014
Krijgsman, C., Mainhard, T., Tartwijk, J., Borghouts, L., Vansteenkiste, M., Aelterman, N., & Haerens, L. (2019). Where to go and how to get there: Goal clarification, process feedback and students’ need satisfaction and frustration from lesson to lesson. Learning and Instruction, 61, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninnstruc.2018.12.005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2018.12.005
Lang, C., Feldmeth, A. K., Brand, S., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., Pühse, U., & Gerber, M. (2016). Stress management in physical education class: An experiential approach to improve coping skills and reduce stress perceptions in adolescents. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 35(2), 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2015-0079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2015-0079
Li, F., Chen, J., & Baker, M. (2014). University students’ attitudes toward physical education teaching. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(2), 186-212. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2012-0187 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.2012-0187
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Moy, B., Renshaw, I., Davids, K., & Brymer, E. (2019). Preservice teachers implementing a nonlinear physical education pedagogy. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 24(6), 565-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2019.1628934 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17408989.2019.1628934
Nicholls, A., Levy, L., Carson, F., Thompson, M., & Perry, J. (2016). The applicability of self-regulation theories in sport: Goal adjustment capacities, stress appraisals, coping, and well-being among athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 27, 47-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2016.07.011
Núñez, O., & Oliver, K. L. (2021). ‘The collision of two worlds’: when a teacher-centered facilitator meets a student-centered pedagogy. Sport, Education and Society, 26(5), 459-470. https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2020.1738374 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13573322.2020.1738374
O'Grady, A. (2012). Tracing the city –parkour training, play and the practice of collaborative learning. Theatre, Dance and Performance Training, 3(2), 145-162. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443927.2012.686450 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19443927.2012.686450
Oliver, K. L., & Kirk, D. (2015). Girls, gender, and Physical Education: an activist approach. Routledge. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315796239
Oliver, K. L., & Oesterreich, H. A. (2013). Student-centred inquiry as curriculum as a model for field-based teacher education. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 45(3), 394-417. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2012.719550 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2012.719550
Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159-175. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520903028990
Rhodes, R., McEwan, D., & Rebar, A. (2019). Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 42, 100-109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2018.11.010
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. Guilford Publications. https://doi.org/10.1521/978.14625/28806 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1521/978.14625/28806
Sonlleva, M., Martínez, S., & Monjas, R. (2018). Los procesos de evaluación y sus consecuencias. Análisis de la experiencia del profesorado de Educación Física. Estudios Pedagógicos (Valdivia), 44(2), 329-351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-07052018000200329
Taylor, I., Boat, R., & Murphy, S. (2018). Integrating theories of self-control and motivation to advance endurance performance, International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2018.1480050 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984X.2018.1480050
Woods, C. B., Tannehill, D., & Walsh, J. (2012). An examination of the relationship between enjoyment, physical education, physical activity, and health in Irish adolescents. Irish Educational Studies, 31(3), 263-280. https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2012.710068 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2012.710068