• Adis Tabaković
  • Muhamed Tabaković
  • Almir Atiković



artistic gymnastic, isokinetic, vaulting, muscular strength



The aim of the research was to examine the effects of isokinetic training on knee stabilizer strength, and whether this increases the efficiency of performing basic gymnastics vaults. A total of 60 respondents, students of the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education (average age 19.7±1.5 years, weight 75.3±2.9 kg, height 179.8±6.7 cm) were included. The subjects were divided into two groups, experimental (EG) (n=30) and control (CG) (n=30). As part of the 12-week program, the experimental group (EG) in addition to exercises within the regular classes at the university had an additional concentric isokinetic training 3 times a week on the Biodex System 3 dynamometer, while the control group (CG) only had exercises within the regular classes at the university. The results showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between (EG) and (CG), both, in increasing the strength of the knee stabilizers and in the performance of gymnastics vaults, and the strength of the knee extensors and flexors in favor of (EG). It can be concluded that the additional isokinetic training resulted in a greater increase in strength, but also a better performance of gymnastics vaults.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahmed, E. T., Abdel-aziem, A. A., & Ebid, A. A. (2011). Effect of isokinetic training on quadriceps peak torque in healthy subjects and patients with burn injury. Journal of rehabilitation medicine, 43(10), 930-934. DOI:

Amato, M., Lemoine, F., Gonzales, J., Schmidt, C., Afriat, P., & Bernard, P. L. (2001). [Influence of age and physical activity on isokinetic characteristics of hamstring and quadriceps muscles of young gymnasts and soccer players]. Ann Readapt Med Phys, 44(9), 581-590. (Influence de l'âge et de l'activité sportive sur le profil isocinétique des muscles quadriceps et ischio-jambiers de jeunes sportifs gymnastes et footballeurs.) DOI:

Atiković, A., & Smajlović, N. (2011). Relation between vault difficulty values and biomechanical parameters in men's artistic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 3(3), 91-105.

Baltzopoulos, V., & Brodie, D. A. (1989). Isokinetic Dynamometry. Sports Medicine, 8(2), 101-116. DOI:

Bassa, E., Michailidis, H., Kotzamanidis, C., Siatras, T., & Chatzikotoulas, K. (2002). Concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee torque in pre-pubescent male gymnasts. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 42, 213-227.

Biodex Medical Systems, Inc. Biodex System 3 Pro - Application/Operation manual. Retrieved 24.08. from

Bradshaw, E., Hume, P., Calton, M., & Aisbett, B. (2010). Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics. Sports Biomech, 9(2), 79-97. DOI:

Brown, A. C., Wells, T. J., Schade, M. L., Smith, D. L., & Fehling, P. C. (2007). Effects of plyometric training versus traditional weight training on strength, power, and aesthetic jumping ability in female collegiate dancers [Article]. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 11, 38. DOI:

Calmels, P., Van Den Borne, I., Nellen, M., Domenach, M., Minaire, P., & Drost, M. (1995). A pilot study of knee isokinetic strength in young, highly trained, female gymnasts. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 5, 69-74. DOI:

Cogan, K. D., & Vidmar, P. (2000). Gymnastics. Fitness Information Technology, Incorporated.

Cools, A. M., Geerooms, E., Van den Berghe, D. F., Cambier, D. C., & Witvrouw, E. E. (2007). Isokinetic scapular muscle performance in young elite gymnasts. J Athl Train, 42(4), 458-463.

Čuk, I., & Karacsony, I. (2004). Vault: methods, ideas, curiosities, history. ŠTD Sangvinčki.

Dallas, G., Dallas, G., & Maridaki, M. (2021). The Effect of 10-week Isokinetic Training on Muscle Strength and Gymnastic Performance in Preadolescent Female Gymnast. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 13, 399-409. DOI:

Douda, H., Tokmakidis, S., & N., T. (1997). The effect of training during growth of rhythmic sports gymnastics development The Third Annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science, Manchester, England.

Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique. (2022). 2022 – 2024 Code of Points. Retrieved 24.08. from

Ferkolj, S. M. (2010). A kinematic analysis of the handspring double salto forward tucked on a new vaulting table. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 2(1), 35-46.

Gioftsidou, A., Ispirlidis, I., Pafis, G., Malliou, P., Bikos, C., & Godolias, G. (2008). Isokinetic strength training program for muscular imbalances in professional soccer players. Sport Sci Health, 2, 101-105. DOI:

Gröpel, P., & Beckmann, J. (2017). A Pre-Performance Routine to Optimize Competition Performance in Artistic Gymnastics. The Sport Psychologist, 31(2), 199-207. DOI:

Hall, E., Bishop, D. C., & Gee, T. I. (2016). Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts. PLoS One, 11(2), e0148790. DOI:

Harries, S. K., Lubans, D. R., & Callister, R. (2012). Resistance training to improve power and sports performance in adolescent athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15(6), 532-540. DOI:

InBody Co., Ltd. . BSM 370. Retrieved 24.08. from

Kochanowicz, A., Kochanowicz, K., Niespodziúski, B., Mieszkowski, J., Aschenbrenner, P., Bielec, G., & Szark-Eckardt, M. (2016). Maximal Power of the Lower Limbs of Youth Gymnasts and Biomechanical Indicators of the Forward Handspring Vault Versus the Sports Result. Journal of Human Kinetics, 53(1), 33-40. DOI:

Lešnik, B., Glinšek, V., & Zvan, M. (2015). Correlation between gymnastics elements knowledge and performance success in younger categories of alpine skiing. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 7, 67-79.

Marina, M., & Jemni, M. (2014). Plyometric Training Performance in Elite-Oriented Prepubertal Female Gymnasts. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 28, 1015–1025. DOI:

Marinšek, M. (2010). Basic landing characteristics and their application in artistic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 2.

Mujanović, E., Atiković, A., & Mujanović, A. (2014). Relation between acrobatic elements knowledge and alpine skiing parallel turns among physical education students. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 6.

Naughton, G., Farpour-Lambert, N. J., Carlson, J., Bradney, M., & Van Praagh, E. (2000). Physiological Issues Surrounding the Performance of Adolescent Athletes. Sports Medicine, 30(5), 309-325. DOI:

Payne, V. G., Morrow, J. R., Johnson, L., & Dalton, S. N. (1997). Resistance Training in Children and Youth: A Meta-Analysis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68(1), 80-88. DOI:

Piazza, M., Battaglia, C., Fiorilli, G., Innocenti, G., & Iuliano, E. (2014). Effects of resistance training on jumping performance in pre-adolescent rhythmic gymnasts : a randomized controlled study.

Pienaar, A., & Van der Walt, C. (1988). The influence of participation in a gymnastics program on selected anthropometrical variables of six to nine-year old girls. . Journal of Research in Sport Physical Education and Recreation, 11, 39- 47.

Pikosky, M., Faigenbaum, A., Westcott, W., & Rodriguez, N. (2002). Effects of resistance training on protein utilization in healthy children. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 34(5), 820-827. DOI:

Prassas, S., & Gianikellis, K. (2002). Vaulting mechanics. XX International Symposium of biomechanics in sports,

Prassas, S., Kwon, Y. H., & Sands, W. A. (2006). Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review. Sports Biomechanics, 5(2), 261-291. DOI:

Rochcongar, P. (2004). [Isokinetic thigh muscle strength in sports: a review]. Annales de réadaptation et de médecine physique : revue scientifique de la Société française de rééducation fonctionnelle de réadaptation et de médecine physique, 47(6), 274-281. DOI:

Schärer, C., Gross, M., Lorenzetti, S., & Hübner, K. (2021). Energy Transformation on Vault in Elite Artistic Gymnastics: Comparisons between Simple and Difficult Tsukahara and Yurchenko Vaults. Applied Sciences, 11(20), 9484. DOI:

Tabaković, M., Atikovic, A., Kazazović, E., & Turković, S. (2016). Effects of isokinetic resistance training on strength knee stabilizers and performance efficiency of acrobatic elements in artistic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 8, 135-148.

Takei, Y. (2007). The roche vault performed by elite gymnasts: somersaulting technique, deterministic model, and judges' scores. J Appl Biomech, 23(1), 1-11. DOI:

Teng, W., Keong, C. C., Ghosh, A. K., & Thimurayan, V. (2008). Effects of a Resistance Training Programme on Isokinetic Peak Torque and Anaerobic Power of 13-16 Years Old Taekwondo Athletes Running Head: Resistance Training and Taekwondo Athletes.

Zebrowska, A., Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., & Waligóra, G. (2005). The Influence of Eccentric and Concentric Muscle Contractions on Concentration of Growth Factors in Strength Trained Athletes.







How to Cite


Similar Articles

1-10 of 146

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.