• Dimitrios C. Milosis Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Theophanis A. Siatras Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece



Artistic gymnastics, Males, Females, Performance


The aim of the study was to examine differences between male and female university students and their gymnastics specific self-efficacy and performance in gymnastics. In the study, 201 male and 160 female students and their 7 teachers participated voluntarily. The students  attended the second year in the School of Physical Education and Sport Science (SPESS) and were obliged to take the course "Teaching of Gymnastics" for two semesters. Students’ self-efficacy was evaluated by suitable questionnaires at the beginning of the academic year, at the end of the first semester, and at the end of the academic year. Gymnastics skills’ difficulty was evaluated by teachers, and students’ performance was graded by their teachers at the end of the first semester, and at the end of the academic year. The main findings were: (a) both genders increased their self-efficacy during the academic year, while females had higher overall self-efficacy towards all gymnastics apparatus than males’ in the three measurements; (b) there were no gender differences in the average of the three measurements of self-efficacy toward common gymnastics skills; (c) there were no differences in gymnastics skills’ difficulty performed by males and females, and (d) females received higher grades than males. Considering the limitations of the study, the findings can be very useful for more effective organization and teaching of university gymnastics courses.


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How to Cite

Milosis, D. C., & Siatras, T. A. (2022). GENDER DIFFERENCES IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ GYMNASTICS SPECIFIC SELF-EFFICACY AND PERFORMANCE. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 14(3), 401-420.

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