• Stefan Kolimechkov STK Sport, London, United Kingdom
  • Iliya Yanev National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Iliya Kiuchukov National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria
  • Lubomir Petrov National Sports Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria



artistic gymnastics, still rings, dismount, somersault


The rings are one of the six apparatuses in men's artistic gymnastics. The final element in a rings’ routine is in many cases a crucial skill for scoring the routine. Most of the medallists on rings from the Olympic Games and World Championships for the last 20 years performed either the double back straight somersault or the double back straight somersault with a full twist. The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematic analysis of double back straight somersault and double back straight somersault with a full twist on rings. The participants selected for this study were the world-class gymnasts Filip Yanev and Jordan Jovchev. The dismounts were recorded with a DV camera by following a standard method of kinematic analysis. During the execution phase, the ankle speed of Gymnast 1 reached 11.11 m/s and that of Gymnast 2 was 11.29 m/s, and the angular velocity increased substantially to 10.0 rad/s and 9.05 rad/s for Gymnast 1 and 2, respectively. The rotational impulse was sufficient for the successful execution of both dismounts. The actions of Gymnast 2 needed for the full twist, including a small arm asymmetry, began just before releasing the rings. The arching-to-piking action beneath the rings, as well as the powerful pull, combined with a sufficient swing of the legs, are crucial factors for the successful execution of the dismounts.


Download data is not yet available.


Bango, B., Sillero-Quintana, M., & Grande, I. (2013). New tool to assess the force production in the swallow. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5(3), 47 - 58.

Brewin, M., & Kerwin, D. (2003). Indirect estimation of cable tension during gymnastic movements on rings. Sports Engineering, 6, 177–185. DOI:

Brewin, M., Yeadon, M., & Kerwin, D. (2000). Minimising peak forces at the shoulders during backward longswings on rings. Human Movement Science, 19, 717-736. DOI:

Caraffa, A., Cerulli, G., Rizzo, A., Buompadre, V., Appoggetti, S., & Fortuna, M. (1996). An arthroscopic and electromyographic study of painful shoulders in elite gymnasts. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 4(1), 39-42. doi: 10.1007/BF01565996 DOI:

FIG. (2017). Code of Points 2017-2020 for Men's Artistic Gymnastics Competitions.

FIG. (2019). International Gymnastics Federation - Results. Retrieved 3 June, 2020, from

FIG. (2020). Sports Profile of Jordan Jovchev at the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG). Retrieved 02.06.2020, from

Gorosito, M. (2013). Relative strength requirement for swallow element proper execution: a predictive test. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5(3), 59 - 67.

Hübner, K., & Schärer, C. (2015). Relationship between swallow, support scale and iron cross on rings and their specific preconditioning strengthening exercises. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 7(3), 59 - 68.

Jemni, M. (2018). The Science of Gymnastics - Advanced Concepts (2nd ed.). Routledge, Taylor & Francis Grp. London and New York. ISBN: eBook 9781315203805, Paperback 9781138701939; DOI:

Kolar, E., Kolar, K. A., & Stuhec, S. (2002). Comparative analysis of selected biomechanic characteristics between a support backward swing and support swing for the 1 1/4 straddle-piked forward salto on the parallel bars. Sports Biomech, 1(1), 69-78. doi: 10.1080/14763140208522787 DOI:

Kolar, E., Piletič, S., Bedenik, K., Pavletič, S., Štuhec, S., & Veličković, S. (2017). Kinematic analysis of the new element 'Dimic' and its comparison with 'Bilozerchev' on Parallel bars Science of Gymnastics Journal, 9(1), 83-96.

Matveyev, L. (1981). Fundamentals of Sports Training. Moscow.

Nissinen, M. A. (1983). Kinematic and kinetic analysis of the giant swing on rings. In H. Matsui & K. Kobayashi, . (Eds.), Biomechanics VIII-B (pp. 781-786): Human Kinetics.

Prassas, S., Kwon, Y. H., & Sands, W. A. (2006). Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review. Sports Biomech, 5(2), 261-291. doi: 10.1080/14763140608522878 DOI:

Pušnik, I., Čuk, I., & Hadžič, V. (2017). Influence of a new anatomic ring design on palm skin temperature. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 9(1), 61 - 70.

Schärer, C., & Hübner, K. (2016). Accuracy of prediction of maximum resistance at increased holding times based on a three seconds maximum static strength test of the three main strength elements on rings. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 8(2), 125 - 134.

Sommer, C. (2008). Building the Gymnastic Body - The Science of Gymnastics Strength Training. USA: Olympic Bodies, LLC.

Sprigings, E. J., Lanovaz, J. L., Watson, L. G., & Russell, K. W. (1998). Removing swing from a handstand on rings using a properly timed backward giant circle: a simulation solution. J Biomech, 31(1), 27-35. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9290(97)00110-3 DOI:

WMA. (2013). WMA Declaration of Helsinki - Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.

Yamada, T., Watanabe, K., Kiguchi, K., & Izumi, K. (2002). Control for a rings gymnastic robot using fuzzy reasoning and genetic algorithms. Artif Life Robotics, 6, 113-119. DOI:

Yeadon, M. (1994). Twisting techniques used in dismounts from rings. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 10, 178-188. DOI:

Yeadon, M., & Brewin, M. (2003). Optimised performance of the backward longswing on rings. J Biomech, 36, 545-552. DOI:

Zou, N., Gong , M., Wang , L., & Wu, J. (2012). A Kinematic Analysis of Yan Mingyong's landing from Rings after the backward giant swing tuck of 2-circle back flip and a 360° turn. Paper presented at the 2012 International Conference on Systems and Informatics (ICSAI 2012).







How to Cite

Kolimechkov, S., Yanev, I., Kiuchukov, I., & Petrov, L. (2021). KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF DOUBLE BACK STRAIGHT SOMERSAULT AND DOUBLE BACK STRAIGHT SOMERSAULT WITH FULL TWIST ON RINGS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 13(2), 191-202.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 178

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)