• Siahkouhian Marefat Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
  • Bahram Mohammad Ebrahim Department of Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran
  • Mogharnasi Mehdi Department of Sport Sciences, University of Birjand, Birjand, Iran



explosive power, flexibility, young gymnast


A gymnast can not succeed without enough muscle strength and endurance. The aim of this study was to determine the differences between explosive power and flexibility in young boy gymnasts at different performance levels. Ninety-five young boys who participated in this study were divided into three groups: two artistic gymnast groups (N=53) and a sedentary (N=42) group. Artistic gymnasts were classified by their performance level and sports history to an elite (E, N=15) and/or a non-elite (Ne, N=38) group. The explosive power of subjects was determined via vertical and standing long jumps. The sit and reach flexibility test was used to determine lower body muscle flexibility. Our results showed that explosive power and flexibility test records were significantly different among the three groups (P≤0.001). They led to a conclusion that sport specific exercise training resulted in a concurrent improvement in explosive power and flexibility of young gymnasts.


Download data is not yet available.


Alp, M., & Gorur, B. (2020). Comparison of Explosive Strength and Anaerobic Power Performance of Taekwondo and Karate Athletes. Journal of Education and Learning, 1: 149-155. DOI:

Marinšek, M., & Pavletič, M. S. (2020). Association between muscles'contractile properties and jumping performance in gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 1: 75-105. DOI:

Mahood, N.V., Kenefick, R.W., Kertze, r R., Quinn, T.J. (2001). Physiological determinants of cross-country ski racing performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Sxercise, 33:1379-1384. DOI:

Elferink-Gemser, M., Visscher, C., Lemmink, K., Mulder, T. (2004). Relation between multidimensional performance characteristics and level of performance in talented youth field hockey players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 22:1053-1063. DOI:

Blanksby, B., Bloomfield, J., Ponchard, M., Ackland, T. (1986). The relationship between anatomical characteristics and swimming performance in state age-group championship competitors. Journal of Swimming Research, 2:30-36.

Kinser, A.M., Ramsey, M.W., O'bryant, H.S., Ayres, C.A., Sands, W.A., Stone, M.H. (2008). Vibration and stretching effects on flexibility and explosive strength in young gymnasts. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 40:133. DOI:

Blakey, W.P., Educational, T.E. (1994). Stretching Without Pain: Sechelt, BC: Twin Eagles Educational & Healing Institute.

Bompa, T., Buzzichelli, C. (2015). Periodization Training for Sports, 3E: Human kinetics.

Douda, H.T., Toubekis, A.G., Avloniti, A.A., Tokmakidis, S.P. (2008). Physiological and anthropometric determinants of rhythmic gymnastics performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 3:41-54. DOI:

Linthorne, N.P., Guzman, M.S., Bridgett, L.A. (2005). Optimum take-off angle in the long jump. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23:703-712. DOI:

Muraki, Y., Ae, M., Yokozawa, T., Koyama, H. (2005). Athletics: Mechanical properties of the take‐off leg as a support mechanism in the long jump. Sports Biomechanics, 4:1-15. DOI:

Hansen, L., Bangsbo, J., Twisk, J., Klausen, K. (1999). Development of muscle strength in relation to training level and testosterone in young male soccer players. Journal of Applied Physiology.x, 87:1141-1147. DOI:

Kubo, J., Chishaki, T., Nakamura, N., Muramatsu, T., Yamamoto, Y., Ito, M., et al. (2006). Differences in fat-free mass and muscle thicknesses at various sites according to performance level among judo athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20:654-657. DOI:

Lucertini, F., Spazzafumo, L., De Lillo, F., Centonze, D., Valentini, M., Federici, A. (2013). Effectiveness of professionally-guided physical education on fitness outcomes of primary school children. European Journal of Sport Science, 13:582-590. DOI:

Opstoel, K., Pion, J., Elferink-Gemser, M., Hartman, E., Willemse, B., Philippaerts, R., et al. (2015). Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports. Plose One, 5: 1-16. DOI:

Siahkouhian, M., Esmaeilzadeh, S. (2011). Comparisons of serum C-reactive protein in young soccer players and non-athletes. Biology of Sport, 28:255. DOI:

Chimera, N.J., Swanik, K.A., Swanik, C.B., Straub, S.J. (2004). Effects of plyometric training on muscle-activation strategies and performance in female athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 39:24.

Kamtsios, S. (2008). Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12-year-old children with different body mass index. South African Journal of Sports Medicine, 20:32-36. DOI:

Karve, N.K.D.R. (2015). Study On Selected Rural Culture Games Of Gulbarga District. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 4: 79-82.

Malina, R.M., Baxter-Jones, A.D., Armstrong, N., Beunen, G.P., Caine, D., Daly, R.M., et al. (2013). Role of intensive training in the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts. Sports Medicine, 43:783-802. DOI:

Jemni, M., Sands, W.A., Friemel, F., Stone, M.H., Cooke, C.B. (2006). Any effect of gymnastics training on upper-body and lower body aerobic and power components in national and international male gymnasts? The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20:899-907. DOI:

Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P. (2013). The effect of two different conditions of Whole Bode Vibration (WBV) on flexibility and jumping performance on artistic gymnasts. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 5: 67-77.

Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P., Mellos, V. (2014). the acute effect of whole body vibration training on flexibility and explosive strength of young gymnasts. Biology of Sport, 3: 233-237. DOI:

Mellos, V., Dallas, G., Kirialanis, P., Fiorilli, G., Di Cagno, A. (2014). comparison between physical conditioning status and improvement in artistics gymnasts and non-athletes peers. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 1: 33-43.

Dallas, G., Smirniotou, A., Tsiganos, G., Tsopani, D., Di Cagno, A., Tsolakis, Ch. (2014). Acute effect of different stretching methods on flexibility and jumping performance in competitive artistic gymnasts. Journal of Sport Medicine and Physical Fitness, 6: 683-690.

Kuznetsova, Z., Dauletshin, I., Kuznetsov, S. (2015). Indicators of body reserve opportunities for young gymnasts as one of the factors for successful developement of initial specialized training. Baltic Journal of Sport & Health Sciences, 96: 31-37.

Lopes, V.P., Vasques, C., Ferreira, J., Maia, J.A. (2005). Physical activity levels in childhood and adolescence: age and gender differences. Conferint, Ainternat, Ionalã De Comunicãri tiintifice, 39-47.

Kuno, S.y., Takahashi, H., Fujimoto, K., Akima, H., Miyamura, M., Nemoto, I., et al. (1995). Muscle metabolism during exercise using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adolescents. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 70:301-304. DOI:

Massidda, M., Toselli, S., Calo, C. (2015). Genetics and Artistic Gymnastics: 2014 Update. Austin Biomark Diagn, 2:459-466.

Fernandez-Villarino, M.A., Sierra-Palmeiro, E., Bobo-Arce, M., Lago-Peñas, C. (2015). Analysis of the training load during the competitive period in individual rhythmic gymnastics. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 15:660-667. DOI:

Mehrtash, M., Rohani, H., Farzaneh, E., Nasiri, R. (2015). The effect of 6 months specific aerobic gymnasic training on motor abilities in 10-12 years old boys. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 7:51-60.

Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., Castagna, C., Martino, F., Fiorini, S., Wisloff, U. (2008). Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and jumping and sprinting ability in soccer players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42:42-46. DOI:

Živković, M., Lazarević, V. (2011). Influence of flexibility and explosive power on the results in sprint disiplines. Activities in Physical Education & Sport, 2: 123-27.

Wilson, J.M., Flanagan, E.P. (200). The role of elastic energy in activities with high force and power requirements: a brief review. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 22:1705-15. DOI:







How to Cite

Marefat, S., Ebrahim, B. M., & Mehdi, M. (2021). MUSCLE FLEXIBILITY AND EXPLOSIVE POWER IN YOUNG ARTISTIC GYMNAST BOYS AT DIFFERENT PERFORMANCE LEVEL. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 13(2), 253-262.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 153

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.