COMPARISON OF BUNGEE-AIDED AND FREE-BOUNCING ACCELERATIONS ON TRAMPOLINE

Authors

  • William A. Sands U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association - High Performance Park City, Utah, United States
  • Bret Kelly U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association - High Performance, Park City, Utah United States
  • Gregory Bogdanis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens, Greece
  • Leland Barker Creighton University - Department of Exercise Science and Pre-Health Professions, Omaha, Nebraska, United States
  • Olivia Donti National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens, Greece
  • Jeni R. McNeal Eastern Washington University – PEHR Cheney, Washington, United States
  • Gabriella Penitente Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.3.279-288

Keywords:

safe jumping, biomechanics data, time, peak values

Abstract

Trampolines remain the single best apparatus for the training of aerial acrobatics skills.  Trampoline use has led to catastrophic injuries from poor landings.  Passive injury prevention countermeasures such as specialized matting have been largely ineffective.  Active injury countermeasures such as hand spotting, “throw-in” mats, and overhead spotting rigs provide the most effective methods.  The recent addition of several bungee cords between the ropes and the gymnast’s spotting harness has resulted in altered teaching and coaching of trampoline-related acrobatics.  Bungee cords have eliminated the need for a coach/spotter to manage the ropes during skill learning.  The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of the addition of bungee cords with a traditional rope-based overhead spotting rig.  There is a paucity of any research involving trampoline injury countermeasures.  Ten experienced trampoline acrobatic athletes (5 males, 5 females) from the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association Aerials National Team performed 10 bounces as high as they could control.  A triaxial accelerometer (200 Hz) characterized 10 bungee cord aided bounces and 10 free-bounces on a trampoline from each athlete.  Bed contact times, peak accelerations, and average accelerations were obtained.  The results supported our hypotheses that the bungee-aided bounces achieved only 40% (average) to 70% (peak) of the free-bouncing accelerations (all ρ < 0.001 and all ƞ2partial >0.092).  The bed contact time was approximately 65% longer during the bungee-aided bounces (ρ < 0.001).  Bungee cords may reduce the harshness of landings on trampoline.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

American Academy of Orthpaedic Surgeons, A. A. O. S. (2001). Trampolines and trampoline safety. In I. F. o. S. Medicine (Ed.), International Sports Medicine Directory (pp. 148). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

American Academy of Pediatrics, A. A. P. (1982). Trampolines II. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 10(12), 63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.1982.11947392

American Academy of Pediatrics, A. A. P. (1999). Trampolines at home, school, and recreational centers. Pediatrics, 103(5), 1053-1055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.103.5.1053

American Society for Testing and Materials. (1990). Standard consumer safety specification for components, assembly, and use of a trampoline. In J. Gabriel (Ed.), U.S. Diving Safety Manual (pp. Addendum 2). Indianapolis, IN: U.S. Diving Publications.

Briggs, K. (2014). The relationship between strength, power and trampoline jump height (BS (Honors) Dissertation), Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Council on Sports Medicine & Fitness. (2012). Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2082 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-2082

Eager, D., Chapman, C., & Bondoc, K. (2012, 9-12 December 2012). Characterisation of trampoline bounce using acceleration Paper presented at the 7th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, ACAM 7 Adelaide, Australia. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2012-040580a.21

Elvin, D. (1999). On the Wild Side. Civil Engineering Magazine, 69, 1-7.

Esposito, P. W. (2003). Trampoline injuries. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research(409), 43-52. doi:10.1097/01.blo.0000057783.10364.5b DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000057783.10364.5b

Freeman, M. D., Croft, A. C., Nicodemus, C. N., Centeno, C. J., & Elkins, W. L. (2005). Significant Spinal Injury Resulting From Low-Level Accelerations: A Case Series of Roller Coaster Injuries. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(11), 2126-2130. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.05.017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.05.017

Harden, M., & Earnest, C. P. (2015). The effect of warm-up modalities on trampoline flight time performance. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 10(2), 33-43.

Hennessey, J. T. (1990). Part 3. Trampoline safety and diving programs. In J. L. Gabriel (Ed.), U.S. Diving Safety Manual (pp. 159-165). Indianapolis, IN: U.S. Diving, Inc.

Henry, F. M. (1950). The loss of precision from discarding discrepant data. The Research Quarterly, 21(2), 145-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1950.10624840

Hite, R. R., Greene, K. A., Levy, D. I., & Jackimczyk, K. (1992). Injuries Resulting From Bungee-Cord Jumping Annals of Emergency Medicine, 22, 1060-1063. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(05)82752-0

J.O.P.E.R. (1978). The use of trampolines and minitramps in physical education. Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, 49(8), 14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00971170.1978.10617859

Jensen, P., Scott, S., Krustrup, P., & Mohr, M. (2013). Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(16), 1761-1769. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.803591 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2013.803591

Kakel, R. (2012). Trampoline fracture of the proximal tibial metaphysis in children may not progress into valgus: A report of seven cases and a brief review. Orthopaedics & Traumatology: Surgery &Research, 94(4), 446-449. doi:10.1016/j.otsr.2012.02.007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2012.02.007

Kimball, D. (1999a). Part 3. Overhead Mounting Belt Spotting Techniques. In J. L. Gabriel (Ed.), U.S. Diving safety training manual (2nd ed., pp. 108-110). Indianapolis, IN: United States Diving, Inc.

Kimball, D. (1999b). Part 7. Diving Training Stations and Spotting Rigs for Trampoline, Dry Board, Dry Platform and Wet Board. In J. L. Gabriel (Ed.), U.S. Diving safety training manual (2nd ed., pp. 81-88). Indianapolis, IN: United States Diving, Inc.

Kimball, D. (2007). Overhead mounted belt spotting techniques. In R. M. Malina & J. L. Gabriel (Eds.), USA Diving Coach Development Reference Manual (pp. 637-642). Indianapolis, IN: USA Diving Publications.

Kroll, W. (1967). Reliability theory and research decision in selection of a criterion score. The Research Quarterly, 38, 412-419. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10671188.1967.10613410

Nysted, M., & Drogset, J. O. (2006). Trampoline injuries. British Journal Sports Medicine., 40, 984-987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.029009

Sands, W. A. (1990). Spotting belts. In G. S. George (Ed.), USGF gymnastics safety manual (2nd ed., pp. 47-50). Indianapolis, IN: U.S. Gymnastics Federation.

Sands, W. A. (2000). Injury prevention in women's gymnastics. Sports Medicine, 30(5), 359-373. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030050-00004

Sands, W. A., & Drew, G. (2007). A case study of trampoline throw-in mats & peak accelerations. Technique, 27(1), 10-11.

Silver, J. R., Silver, D. D., & Godfrey, J. J. (1986). Trampolining injuries of the spine. Injury, 17(2), 117-124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(86)80010-9

Simons, C., & Bradshaw, E. J. (2016). Do accelerometers mounted on the back provide a good estimate of impact loads in jumping and landing tasks? Sports Biomech. doi:10.1080/14763141.2015.1123765 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2015.1123765

Smith, D. H., & Meaney, D. F. (2004). Roller Coasters, G Forces, and Brain Trauma: On the Wrong Track? Journal of Neurotrauma, 19(10). doi:http://doi.org/10.1089/08977150260337921 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/08977150260337921

Sokal, R. R., & James Rohlf, F. (1969). Biometry. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman.

Tenner, E. (1996). Why Things Bite Back. New York, NY: Random House.

Torg, J. S. (1987). Trampoline-induced quadriplegia. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 6(1), 73-85. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-5919(20)31060-7

Torg, J. S., & Das, M. (1984). Trampoline-related quadriplegia: Review of the literature and reflections on the American Academy of Pediatrics' Position Statement. Pediatrics, 74(5), 804-812. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.74.5.804

USA Tumbling and Trampoline, U. (2007). Trampoline Safety. Retrieved from USATT Online

Downloads

Published

2019-10-01

How to Cite

Sands, W. A., Kelly, B., Bogdanis, G., Barker, L., Donti, O., McNeal, J. R., & Penitente, G. (2019). COMPARISON OF BUNGEE-AIDED AND FREE-BOUNCING ACCELERATIONS ON TRAMPOLINE. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(3), 279–288. https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.3.279-288

Issue

Section

Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)