• Miha Marinšek Faculty of Education, University of Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia
  • Ivan Čuk Faculty of Sport, Univerity of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia




Acrobatics, floor, asymmetry, twisting technique


The purpose of the study was to determine whether take-off asymmetry affects landing asymmetry. Eleven male gymnasts performed forward and backward somersaults with 1/2, 1/1, and 3/2 twists. The leading leg for each participant was defined according to the twisting direction. Ground reaction forces under each foot were measured with Parotec insoles. Absolute and relative measures of lateral asymmetry were used as dependent variables. Three-way ANOVA and a series of one-way ANOVAs were used to determine the main effects between take-off and landing. A series of paired t-tests with Bonferroni corrections were used to find differences between the leading and non-leading legs. Maximal ground reaction forces showed that the leading leg was set out to a higher load at take-off than the non-leading leg for twisting somersaults. There were no statistically significant differences found in the maximal ground reaction force between the legs at landings. Index of bilateral asymmetry indicated landings with negligible asymmetry. However, the maximal force differences between the legs in somersault 3/2 were higher when compared to other somersault variations. No evidence was found to affirm that the asymmetry at take-off affects asymmetry at landing in a twisting somersault. Presumably, gymnasts can take corrective measures during the aerial phase of the twisting somersault that effectively diminish the tilt of the body and enable gymnasts to prepare for the landing with small proportional asymmetry. Prudence is required as these proportions rise in the quantity of load with the height of the somersault.


Download data is not yet available.


Chesnin, K. J., Selby-Silverstein, L., & Besser, M. P. (2000). Comparison of an in-shoe pressure measurement device to a force plate: concurrent validity of center of pressure measurements. Gait & posture, 12(2), 128-133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0966-6362(00)00071-0

Cohen, R. G., & Sternad, D. (2009). Variability in motor learning: relocating, channeling and reducing noise. Experimental Brain Research, 193(1), 69–83. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-008-1596-1

Čuk, I., & Marinšek, M. (2013). Landing quality in artistic gymnastics is related to landing symmetry. Biology of sport, 30(1), 29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.1029818

Frolich, C. (1980). The physics of somersaulting and twisting. Scientific American, 242, 112 – 120. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0380-154

Gervais, P. L. (1997). Movement changes in landings from a jump as a result of instruction in children. Coaching and Sport Science Journal, 2, 11–16.

Hudash, G. W., & Albright, J. P. (1993). Women’s intercollegiate gymnastics injury patterns and permanent medical disability. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 314–320. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659302100224

Karacsony, I. & Čuk, I. (2005). Floor exercises – Methods, Ideas, Curiosities, History. Ljubljana: STD Sangvinčki.

Kim, K-W., Ryu, Y., & Jeon, K-K. (2012). A kinetics Analysis of Tucked Backward Salto on the Balance Beam. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 22(4), 395-404. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5103/KJSB.2012.22.4.395

Kirialanis, P., Malliou, P., Beneka, A., Gourgoulis, V., Giofstidou, A., & Godolias, G. (2002). Injuries in artistic gymnastic elite adolescent male and female athletes. Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, 16, 145–151. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3233/BMR-2002-16405

Krol, H., Klyczcz-Morciniec, M., Sobota, G., & Nowak, K. (2016). The Complex Analysis of Movement in the Evaluation of the Backward Somersoult Performance. Physical Activity Review, 4, 28-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.16926/par.2016.04.04

Koch, M., Lunde, L. K., Ernst, M., Knardahl, S., & Veiersted, K. B. (2016). Validity and reliability of pressure-measurement insoles for vertical ground reaction force assessment in field situations. Applied ergonomics, 53, 44-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2015.08.011

Marinšek, M. (2010). Basic landing characteristics and their application in artistic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 2(2), 59–67.

Marinšek, M., & Čuk, I. (2010). Landing errors in the men's floor exercise are caused by flight characteristics. Biology of Sport, 27(2), 123–128. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5604/20831862.913079

McNeal, J. R., Sands, W. A., & Shultz, B. B. (2007). Muscle activation characteristics of tumbling take-offs. Sports Biomechanics, 6(3), 375-390. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140701491393

Mkaouer, B., Jemni, M., Amara, S., Chaabene, H., Padulo, J., & Tabka, Z. (2014). Effect of three Technical Arms Swings on the elevation of the Center of Mass During a Standing Back Somersault. Journal of Human Kinetics, 40, 37-48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2014-0005

Pajek Bučar, M., Hedbávný, P, Kalichová, M., & Čuk, I. (2016). The asymmetry of lower limb load in balance beam routines. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 8(1), 5–13.

Panzer, V. P. (1987). Lower Extremity Loads in Landings of Elite Gymnasts. Phd. thesis, Oregon, University of Oregon.

Pettrone, F., & Ricciardelli, E. (1987). Gymnastic injuries: The Virginia experience 1982–1983. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 15, 59–62. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/036354658701500108

Requejo, P. S., McNitt-Gray, J. L., & Flashner, H. (2002). Flight phase joint control required for successful gymnastics landings. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 34(5), 99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200205001-01797

Teixeira, L. A. (2008). Categories of manual asymmetry and their variation with advancing age. Cortex, 44(6), 707–716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2006.10.002

Teixeira, L. A., Silva, M. V., & Carvalho, M. (2003). Reduction of lateral asymmetries in dribbling: The role of bilateral practice. Laterality: Asymmetries of Body, Brain and Cognition, 8(1), 53–65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/713754469

Voyer, D., & Jansen, P. (2017). Motor expertise and performance in spatial tasks: A meta-analysis. Human Movement Science, 54, 110–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2017.04.004

Wendt, G. R. (1951) Vestibular functions. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of Experimental Psychology (pp. 1191–1223). New York: Wiley.

Yeadon, F. (1993a). The biomechanics of twisting somersaults Part III: Aerial twist. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(3), 209–218. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419308729987

Yeadon, F. (1993b). The biomechanics of twisting somersaults Part II: Contact twist. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11(3), 199–208. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419308729986

Yeadon, M. R. (2000). Aerial movement. In: Zatsiorsky, V. M. (Ed.). Biomechanics in Sport: Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention. Olympic Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine (pp. 273–283). Oxford: Blackwell Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470693797.ch13

Yeadon, M. R., & Hiley, M. J. (2014). The control of twisting somersaults. Journal of biomechanics, 47(6), 1340–1347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.02.006

Yeadon, M. R., & Mikulcik, E. C. (1996). The control of non-twisting somersaults using configuration changes. Journal of biomechanics, 29(10), 1341–1348. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(96)00034-6

Zequera M, Stephan S, & Paul J (2006). The "parotec" foot pressure measurement system and its calibration procedures. In 28th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (pp. 5212-16). New York. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259624







How to Cite

Marinšek, M., & Čuk, I. (2019). EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEG LOADINGS AT TAKE-OFF ON LANDING CHARACTERISTICS IN TWISTING SOMERSAULTS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(3), 289-298. https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.3.289-298

Similar Articles

1-10 of 37

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.