COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALE ARTISTIC GYMNASTS

Authors

  • George Dallas National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens Greece
  • Stelliou Charis National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens Greece
  • Theodorou Apostolos National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens Greece
  • Costas Dallas National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Athens Greece

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.3.299-306

Keywords:

anxiety, self-confidence, performance, gymnastics

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the competitive state anxiety and self-confidence on artistic gymnasts participating in the Greek national competition. 84 gymnasts, aged 9 – 11 years, completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2, one hour before the competition. The gymnasts, based on the total score they have received in all-around competition were divided into high and low performance, responded to the three subscales: Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, and Self-confidence. Results showed that there was significant difference in Self-confidence between high performance and low performance gymnasts. However, no significant differences were found in cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety in these gymnasts. The Pearson coefficient revealed statistically significant between cognitive and somatic anxiety. The regression analysis failed to reveal any significant predictor of performance in these young male artistic gymnasts. The findings of the study underline the importance of examining competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in young male artistic gymnasts, mainly developing strategies to improve self-confidence to enable the athletes to better prepare for forthcoming competitions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdoli, B. 2006. Psychical-social principles of physical exercise and sports, Bamdad book, pp. 71-91.

Bejek, K. & Hagtvet, K. (1996). The content of pre-competitive state anxiety in top and lower level of female gymnasts. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 9, 19-31. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10615809608249390

Burton, D. (1988). Do anxious swimmers swim slower? Reexamining the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 45-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.10.1.45

Cottyn, J., De Clerqo, D., Pannier, J-L., Crombez, G., & Lenoir, M. (2006). The measurement of competitive anxiety during balance beam performance in gymnasts, Journal of Sport Science, 24, 157-164. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500131571

Craft, L.L., Magyar, T.M., Becker, B.J., & Feltz, D.L. (2003). The Relationship Between The Competitive State Anxiety İnventory-2 And Sport Performance: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 25(1), 44-65. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.1.44

Durand-Bush, N., & Salmela, J. H. (2001). Becoming a world or Olympic Champion: A process rather than an end result. In A. Papaioannou, M. Goudas, & Y. Theodorakis (Eds.), In the dawn of the new millennium: 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 300-302). Skiathos, Greece: Christodoulidi.

Federation International of Gymnastics. (2016). Technical committee of rhythmic gymnastics: the code of points. Lucerne, Switzerland: Raeber.

Gould, D., Dieffenbach, K., & Moffatt, A. (2002). Psychological characteristics and their development in Olympic champions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14, 172-294. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103482

Hanin, Y.L. (1986). State-trait anxiety research on sports in the USSR. In C.D. Spielberg & R. Diaz (Eds.), Cross-Cultural anxiety. Washington, DC: Hemisphere. Pp. 45-56.

Hanton, S. & Jones, G. (1997). Antecedents of competitive state anxiety as a function of skill level. Psychological Reports, 81, 1139-1147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1997.81.3f.1139

Hanton, S., Mellalieu, S.D., & Hall, R. (2004). Self-confidence and anxiety interpretation: A qualitative investigation. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5(4), 477-495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00040-2

Hardy, L., Jones, G., and Gould, D. (1996). Understanding psychological preparation in sport: theory and practice of elite performers. Chishester, UK: Wiley.

Hardy, L., Woodman, T., & Carrington, S. (2004). Is self-confidence a bias factor in higher-order catastrophe models? An exploratory analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 359-368. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.3.359

Jones, G., Swain, A.B.J., & Hardy, L. (1993). Intensity and direction dimensions of competitive state anxiety and relationships with performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 533-542. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419308730024

Kakkos, V. & Zervas, Y. (20013). Competitive worries and self-confidence as predictors of the precompetitive-emotional state. In Proceedings of the 8th Worlth Congress of Sport Psychology (pp. 855-859). Lisbon, Portugal.

Kais, K., & Raudsepp, L. (2004). Cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence in athletic performance of beach volleyball. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98, 439-449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.98.2.439-449

Martens, R., Burton, D., Nealey, R.S., Bump, L.A., & Smith, D.E. (1983). Development and validation of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory II (SCAI-II). In RE. Martens, R.S. Vealey & D. Burton (Eds.), Competitive Anxiety in Sport (pp. 117-173). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1037/t27557-000

Martens, R., Burton, D., Vealey, R. S., Bump, L., and Smith, D. E. (1990). Development and validation of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). In R. Martens, R.S. Vealey, and D. Burton (Eds.), Competitive anxiety in sport (pp. 117-213). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Martens, R., Vealey, R.S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

McNamara, A., Button, A., & Collins, D. (2010). The role of psychological characteristics in facilitating the pathway to elite performance. The Sport Psychologist, 24, 52-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.24.1.52

Norusis, M.J. (1993). SpPSS for Windows: advanced statistics release 6.0. Chicago, IL: SPSS.

Pineda-Espejel, A., Lopez-Walle, J., Rodriguez, J.T., Villanueav, M.M., & Gurrola, O.S. (2013). Pre-Competitive Anxiety and Self-Confidence in Pan American Gymnasts. Science if Gymnastics Journal, 5(1), 39-48.

Psychountaki, M. (1998). Self-confidence: a conceptual model of studying the performance of young athletes. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Department of Physical education and Sport Science-National and Kapodistrian University of Athens).

Roberts, G., Covin, S., & Sinthial, P. (2004). Sports psychology education, Vaez Mussavi and Masoumech Shojaee, Roshed, pp. 114-126.

Skordilis, E.K., Douka, A., Spartali, I., & Koutsouki, D. (2004). Depth perception of elementary school students with qualitatively evidenced locomotor impairments. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 501-518. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.99.2.501-518

Smolefski, B. M., & Gaverdofski, G. K. (1999). Sportivnaia Gimnastika. Kiev: Olympic Literature.

Spielberger, C. D. (1966). Theory and research on anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger (Ed.), Anxiety and behavior (pp. 3-20). New York: Academic Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4832-3131-0.50006-8

Staurou, N. & Zarvas, Y. (2005). Examining the flow theory with reference to the multidimensional anxiety theory and sport performance. Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Sport Psychology, Sydney, Australia.

Stavrou, N., Psychountaki, M., & Zervas, Y. (2006). Intensity and direction dimensions of competitive state anxiety: a time-to-event approach. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 103, 91-98. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.103.1.91-98

Steindl, R., Kunz, K., Schrott-Fischer, A., & Scholtz, A.W. (2006). Effect of age and sex on maturation of sensory systems and balance control. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 48(6), 477-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2006.tb01299.x

Takei, Y. & Dunn, HJ.H. (1996). A comparison of techniques used by elite gymnasts in performing the basket-to-handstand mount. Journal of Sport Sciences, 14, 269-279. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419608727710

Tsopani, D., Dallas, G., & Skordilis, E. (2011), Competitive state anxiety and performance in young male artistic gymnasts. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 112(2), 549-560. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2466/05.09.20.PMS.112.2.549-560

Vealey, R. (1986). Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 221-246. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.8.3.221

Williams, J., & Krane, V. (2001). Psychological characteristics of peak performance. In J.M. Williams (Eds). Applied Sport Psychology. Personal growth to peak performance (4th ED., PP. 162-178). Mountain View, CA: May-field.

Weinberg, R.S., & Gould, D. (1995). Arousal, stress, and anxiety. In R.S. Weinberg & D. Gould (Eds.), Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (pp. 91-113). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Woodman, T. & Hardy, L. (2001). Stress and anxiety. In R. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C. M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of research on sport psychology (pp. 290-318). New York: Wiley.

Yerkes, R.M., & Dodson, J.D. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit formation. Journal of Comparative and Neurological Psychology, 18, 459-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.920180503

Downloads

Published

2023-01-09

How to Cite

Dallas, G., Charis, S., Apostolos , T., & Dallas, C. (2023). COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG MALE ARTISTIC GYMNASTS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(3), 299–306. https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.3.299-306

Issue

Section

Articles