• William A. Sands U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association, Park City, USA
  • Madison K. Varmette U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association, Park City, USA
  • Gregory C. Bogdanis School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • Olyvia Donti School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece
  • Bryce V. Murphy U.S. Olympic Committee, Olympic Training Center, Colorado Springs, USA
  • Troy J. Taylor U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association, Park City, USA



trampoline, comparison, acceleration, jumping


Trampoline use has skyrocketed in recent years in a variety of recreational contexts and among athletes in sports ranging from gymnastics and diving to skiing and snowboarding. The purpose of this study was to examine the bounce characteristics elicited by athletes bouncing on three types of trampolines. Tumbl Trak, Standard, and Super Tramp trampolines were assessed by 10 experienced trampoline and acrobatic athletes (5 males, 5 females). A triaxial accelerometer (250 Hz) characterized the 10 highest controlled bounces on each trampoline and each athlete. Repeated measures ANOVAs showed statistical differences in bounce characteristics: time from bounce start to peak acceleration (p<.001, ƞ2 =0.82), time from peak acceleration to bounce end (p=.030, ƞ2 =0.40), and total bounce time (p<0.001, ƞ2 =0.78, jump height (p<.001, ƞ2 =0.95) peak acceleration (p=.015, ƞ2 =0.37), and flight time (p<.001, ƞ2 =0.97).  Average acceleration, force, and allometrically scaled average force were not statistically different (p˃.140, ƞ2=0.20). The stiffest trampoline with the least time values, peak accelerations, and jump heights was the Tumbl Trak, followed by the Standard trampoline, and Super Tramp, respectively. This information may help practitioners and others to understand the bounce behaviors of athletes on these types of trampolines.


Download data is not yet available.


Arabatzi, F. (2018). Adaptations in movement performance after plyometric training on mini-trampoline in children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Finess, 58(1-2), 66-72. doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.16.06759-1

Arampatzis, A., Brüggemann, G. P., & Klapsing, G. M. (2001). Leg stiffness and mechanical energetic processes during jumping on a sprung surface. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 33(6), 923-931.

Ashby, K., Pointer, S., Eager, D., & Day, L. (2015). Australian trampoline injury patterns and trends. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 39(5), 491-494. doi:10.1111/1753-6405.12404

Atkinson, G., & Nevill, A. M. (1998). Statistical methods for assessing measurement error (reliability) in variables relevant to sports medicine. Sports Medicine, 26(4), 217-238.

Atterbom, H. A., & MacLean, T. A. (1983). Aerobic benefits of rebound jogging. Annals of Sports Medicine, 1(3), 113-114.

Barker, L., Burnstein, B., & Mercer, J. (2018). Acceleration profile of an acrobatic act during training and shows using wearable technology. Sports Biomech, 1-12. doi:10.1080/14763141.2018.1460394

Bhattacharya, A., McCutcheon, E. P., Shvartz, E., & Greenleaf, J. E. (1980). Body acceleration distribution and O2 uptake in humans during running and jumping. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol, 49(5), 881-887. doi:10.1152/jappl.1980.49.5.881

Blajer, W., & Czaplicki, A. (2001). Modeling and inverse simulation of somersaults on the trampoline. Journal of Biomechanics, 34(12), 1619-1629.

Briggs, K. (2014). The relationship between strength, power and trampoline jump height (BS (Honors) Dissertation), Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

Butler, K. N. (1969). The effect of instant replay videotape television on improving performance of selected trampoline skills. International Gymnast, 11(10), 13.

Chalmers, D. J., Hume, P. A., & Wilson, B. D. (1994). Trampolines in New Zealand: a decade of injuries. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 28(4), 234-238.

Chen, J., Guo, H., Gao, Z., An, M., Wang, X., & Chen, W. (2016). Optimal kicking of a trampolinist. Hum Mov Sci, 48, 54-61. doi:10.1016/j.humov.2016.04.005

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Council On Sports, M., & Fitness. (2012). Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence. Pediatrics. doi:10.1542/peds.2012-2082

Cugusi, L., Manca, A., Serpe, R., Romita, G., Bergamin, M., Cadeddu, C., . . . Mercuro, G. (2018). Effects of a mini-trampoline rebounding exercise program on functional parameters, body composition and quality of life in overweight women. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Finess, 58(3), 287-294. doi:10.23736/s0022-4707.16.06588-9

Da Roza, T., Brandao, S., Mascarenhas, T., Jorge, R. N., & Duarte, J. A. (2015). Volume of training and the ranking level are associated with the leakage of urine in young female trampolinists. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 25(3), 270-275. doi:10.1097/jsm.0000000000000129

Eager, D., Chapman, C., & Bondoc, K. (2012, 9-12 December 2012). Characterisation of trampoline bounce using acceleration Paper presented at the 7th Australasian Congress on Applied Mechanics, ACAM 7 Adelaide, Australia.

Esposito, P. W., & Esposito, L. M. (2009). The reemergence of the trampoline as a recreational activity and competitive sport. Current Sports Medicine Reports, 8(5), 273-277. doi:10.1249/JSR.0b013e3181b8f60a

Farquharson, R. (2012). The demands of gymnastic trampolining from touch down to take off: a physical preparation perspective. SportEx Medicine, Jul 2012(53), 14.

Ferris, D. P., & Farley, C. T. (1997). Interaction of leg stiffness and surface stiffness during human hopping. Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1), 15-22.

Fisher, A. (2010). Extreme Trampoline. Time, 176(7), 48-48.

Giagazoglou, P., Kokaridas, D., Sidiropoulou, M., Patsiaouras, A., Karra, C., & Neofotistou, K. (2013). Effects of a trampoline exercise intervention on motor performance and balance ability of children with intellectual disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(9), 2701-2707. doi:10.1016/j.ridd.2013.05.034

Glitsch, U., & Henrichs, B. (1993). Pressure distribution under the foot during take-off in trampolining. In G.-P. Brüggemann & J. K. Ruhl (Eds.), Biomechanics in Gymnastics (pp. 301-307). Koln, Germany: Bundesinstitut fur Sportwissenschaft.

Guillot, A., & Collet, C. (2004). Field dependence-independence in complex motor skills. Perceptual Motor Skills, 96(2), 575-583.

Hahn, J., Shin, S., & Lee, W. (2015). The effect of modified trampoline training on balance, gait, and falls efficacy of stroke patients. J Phys Ther Sci, 27(11), 3351-3354. doi:10.1589/jpts.27.3351

Hammer, A., Schwartzbach, A., & Paulev, P. E. (1981). Trampoline training injuries - one hundred ninety-five cases. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 15(3), 151-158.

Harden, M., & Earnest, C. P. (2015). The effect of warm-up modalities on trampoline flight time performance. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine, 10(2), 33-43.

Hardy, L., Mullen, R., & Martin, N. (2001). Effect of task-relevant cues and state anxiety on motor performance. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 92(3), 943-946.

Heinen, T. (2011). Evidence for the spotting hypothesis in gymnasts. Motor Control, 15(2), 267-284.

Heitkamp, H.-C., Horstmann, T., Mayer, F., Weller, J., & Dickhuth, H.-H. (2001). Gain in strength and muscular balance after balance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 22, 285-290.

Henry, F. M. (1950). The loss of precision from discarding discrepant data. The Research Quarterly, 21(2), 145-152.

Henry, F. M. (1967). "Best" versus "Average" individual scores. The Research Quarterly, 38(2), 317-320.

Hondzinksi, J. M., & Darling, W. G. (2001). Aerial somersault performance under three visual conditions. Motor Control, 3, 281-300.

Hopkins, W. G., Hawley, J. A., & Burke, L. M. (1999). Design and analysis of research on sport performance enhancement. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(3), 472-485.

Horne, D. E. (Ed.) (1968). Trampolining: A complete handbook. London, England: Faber and Faber.

International Gymnastics Federation, F. I. G. (2018). Qualification System - Games of the XXXII Olympiad, Trampoline Gymnastics. Retrieved from

Jensen, P., Scott, S., Krustrup, P., & Mohr, M. (2013). Physiological responses and performance in a simulated trampoline gymnastics competition in elite male gymnasts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31(16), 1761-1769. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.803591

Katch, V. L., Villanacci, J. F., & Sady, S. P. (1981). Energy cost of rebound-running. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 52(2), 269-272.

Kettler, J. (2018). The Next Big Thing Goes Up and Down, and Sometimes Sideways. New York Times, p. SP7. Retrieved from

Kimball, D. (1999). Part 7. Diving Training Stations and Spotting Rigs for Trampoline, Dry Board, Dry Platform and Wet Board. In J. L. Gabriel (Ed.), U.S. Diving safety training manual (2nd ed., pp. 81-88). Indianapolis, IN: United States Diving, Inc.

Kraft, M. (2001). A simple approach for the vertical force of the trampoline bed Retrieved from Braunschweig, Ger:

Ladue, F., & Norman, J. (Eds.). (1954). Two seconds of freedom. Cedar Rapids, IA: Nissen Corporation.

Lewald, R. (1979). German schools ban trampolines. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 7(4), 18-19.

McNitt-Gray, J. L. (1991a). The influence of joint flexion, impact velocity, rotation, and surface characteristics on the forces and torques experienced during gymnastics landings. FIG Scientific/Medical Symposium Proceedings, 1(1), 17-18.

McNitt-Gray, J. L. (1991b). Kinematics and impulse characteristics of drop landings from three heights. International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 7(2), 201-224.

McNitt-Gray, J. L. (1993). Kinetics of the lower extremities during drop landings from three heights. Journal of Biomechanics, 26(9), 1037-1046.

McNitt-Gray, J. L. (1999). Neuromuscular control and performance of landings in gymnastics. In M. Leglise (Ed.), Symposium Medico-Technique (pp. 55-66). Lyss, Switzerland: International Gymnastics Federation.

McNitt-Gray, J. L. (2000). Subject specific coordination of two- and one-joint muscles during landings suggests multiple control criteria. Motor Control, 4(1), 84-88; discussion 97-116.

Moritz, C., & Farley, C. T. (2004). Passive dynamics change leg mechanics for an unexpected surface during human hopping. Journal of Applied Physiology, 97(4), 1313-1322.

Sahlberg, M., & Strandvik, B. (2005). Trampolines are useful in the treatment of cystic fibrosis patients. Pediatric Pulmonology, 40(5), 464; author reply 465. doi:10.1002/ppul.20281

Sandler, G., Nguyen, L., Lam, L., Manglick, M. P., Soundappan, S. S., & Holland, A. J. (2011). Trampoline trauma in children: is it preventable? Pediatric Emergency Care, 27(11), 1052-1056.

Sands, W. A. (2002). Gymnastics Risk Management: Safety Handbook 2002 Edition. Indianapolis, IN: USA Gymnastics.

Sands, W. A., Hondzinski, J. M., Shultz, B. B., & George, G. S. (1995). A comparison of subtalar joint maximal eversion while jogging on the minitrampoline and floor. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 22(2), 65-72.

Shanahan, D. F. (2004). Human Tolerance and Crash Survivability. Paper presented at the Pathological Aspects and Associated Biodynamics in Aircraft Accident Investigation, Madrid, Spain.

Simons, C., & Bradshaw, E. J. (2016a). Do accelerometers mounted on the back provide a good estimate of impact loads in jumping and landing tasks? Sports Biomech. doi:10.1080/14763141.2015.1123765

Simons, C., & Bradshaw, E. J. (2016b). Reliability of accelerometry to assess impact loads of jumping and landing tasks. Sports Biomech, 15(1), 1-10. doi:10.1080/14763141.2015.1091032

Torg, J. S. (1985). Epidemiology, pathomechanics, and prevention of athletic injuries to the cervical spine. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 17(3), 295-303.

Torg, J. S., & Das, M. (1984). Trampoline-related quadriplegia: Review of the literature and reflections on the American Academy of Pediatrics' Position Statement. Pediatrics, 74(5), 804-812.

Torg, J. S., & Das, M. (1985). Trampoline and minitrampoline injuries to the cervical spine. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 4(1), 45-60.

Yeadon, M. R., & Hiley, M. J. (2017). Twist limits for late twisting double somersaults on trampoline. Journal of Biomechanics, 58, 174-178. doi:10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.05.002







How to Cite

Sands, W. A., Varmette, M. K., Bogdanis, G. C., Donti, O., Murphy, B. V., & Taylor, T. J. (2019). COMPARISON OF BOUNCE CHARACTERISTICS ON THREE TYPES OF TRAMPOLINES. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(2), 223-237.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 36

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)