MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG FEMALE ARTISTIC GYMNASTS FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC

Authors

  • Petr Kutac University of Ostrava - Department of Human Movement Studies, Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Sona Jurkova University of Ostrava - Department of Human Movement Studies, Ostrava, Czech Republic
  • Roman Farana University of Ostrava - Department of Human Movement Studies, Ostrava, Czech Republic

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.1.57-66

Keywords:

artistic gymnastics, youth, female, morphology

Abstract

The aim of the study is to analyse the somatic parameters of artistic gymnasts in the pupil competition category and to compare them with the values of the general population in the corresponding age group. The study included 16 female gymnasts in the pupil category and 652 girls in the same age group, which formed the control group. Body height was measured using a stadiometer InBody BSM 370, body mass and body composition by BIA analyser InBody 770 (Biospace, South Korea). The monitored values of each gymnast we compared with the mean values of the control group at the corresponding age separately, using the normalisation index (Ni). The results of the study show that the gymnasts in the youngest competition category already differ in basic anthropometric parameters from the general population. Since the age of nine, the gymnasts have a lower body height (except for one person) and lower body weight than the girls in the general population. The body height and body mass values are below average or highly below average in nine gymnasts (56.3%). The high volume of specific physical activity of the gymnasts, included in their training, affects their body composition parameters. The gymnasts have lower body fat (%) and visceral fat (cm2), their values are below average to highly below average, and higher skeletal muscle mass (%), with values above average or highly above average.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

The results of the study show that the gymnasts in the youngest competition category already differ in basic anthropometric parameters from the general population. Since the age of nine, the gymnasts have a lower body height (except for one gymnast) and lower body weight than the girls in the general population. The BH and BM values is below average or highly below average in nine gymnasts (56.3%). The high volume of specific physical activity of the gymnasts, included in their training, affects their body composition parameters. The gymnasts have lower BF (%) and VFA (cm2), their values are below average to highly below average, and higher SMM (%), with values above average or highly above average.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors also thank the gymnasts who participated in the study. This research was supported by a Czech Science Foundation (GACR) [project no. 16-14133Y].

REFERENCES

Bacciotti, S., Baxter-Jones, A., Gaya, A., & Maia, J. (2017). The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 58(1), 247-259.

Bale, P., & Goodway, J. (1990). Performance variables associated with the competitive gymnast. Sports Medicine, 10(3), 139-145.

Baxter-Jones, A. D., Thompson, A. M., & Malina, R. M. (2002). Growth and maturation in elite young female athletes. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review, 10(1), 42-49.

Bláha, P., Vignerová, J. (2006). 6th Nation-wide Anthropological Survey of Children and Adolescents 2001 Czech Republic. Praha: SZÚ.

Bradshaw, E. J., & Hume, P. A. (2012). Biomechanical approaches to identify and quantify injury mechanisms and risk factors in women's artistic gymnastics. Sports Biomechanics, 11(3), 324-341.

Cassell, C., Benedict, M., & Specker, B. (1996). Bone mineral density in elite 7-to 9-yr-old female gymnasts and swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(10), 1243-1246.

Claessens, A. L., Veer, F. M., Stijnen, V., Lefevre, J., Maes, H., Steens, G., & Beunen, G. (1991). Anthropometric characteristics of outstanding male and female gymnasts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 9(1), 53-74.

Daly, R. M., Bass, S. L., & Finch, C. F. (2001). Balancing the risk of injury to gymnasts: how effective are the counter measures?. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 35(1), 8-19.

Dostálová, I., Přidalová, M., & Kudrna, Z. (2005). Evaluation of body constitution and body fractions of water polo players. Slovenská Antropológia, 8(1), 46–49.

Gil, S. M., Gil, J., Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., & Irazusta, J. (2007). Physiological and anthropometric characteristic of young soccer players according to their playing position: rele¬vance for the selection process. Journal Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2), 438–445.

Kutáč P. (2012). Development of Somatic Parameters of Ice Hockey Players. Česká Antropologie, 62(2), 9-14.

Lindholm, C., Hagenfeldt, K., & Ringertz, B. M. (1994). Pubertal development in elite juvenile gymnasts: effects of physical training. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 73(3), 269-273.

Malina, R. M, Bouchard, C., & Bar-Or, O. (2004). Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.

Malina, R. M. (1994). Physical growth and biological maturation of young athletes. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 22(1), 280-284.

Malina, R. M. (1998). Growth and maturation of young Athletes: Is training for sport a factor? In Chang KM, Micheli L (eds), Sports and Children. Hong Kong: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 133-161.

Malina, R. M. (1999). Growth and maturation of elite female gymnasts: Is training a factor? In Johnston FE, Zemel B, Eveleth PB (eds), Human Growth in Context. London: Smith-Gordon, pp. 291-301.

Malina, R. M., Geithner, C. A. (2011). Body Composition of Young Athletes. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(3), 262-278.

Malina, R. M., Rogol, A. D., Cumming, S. P., e Silva, M. J. C., & Figueiredo, A. J. (2015). Biological maturation of youth athletes: assessment and implications. British Journal Sports Med, 49(13), 852-859.

McArdle, W. D., Katch, F. I., & Katch, V. L. (2007). Exercise Physiology, Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance. Philadelphia: Lippinocott Williams & Wilkins.

Norton, K., & Olds, T. (2001). Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th century. Sports Medicine, 31(11), 763-783.

Özçakar, L., Cetin, A., Kunduracýo, B., & Ülkar, B. (2003). Comparative body fat assessment in elite footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(3), 278-279.

Peltenburg, A. L., Erich, W. B. M., Zonderland, M. L., Bernink, M. J. E., Van Den Brande, J. L., & Huisveld, I. A. (1984). A retrospective growth study of female gymnasts and girl swimmers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 5(05), 262-267.

Sands, B., Caine, D. J., & Borms, J. (2003). Scientific aspects of women's gymnastics (Vol. 45). Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.

Sanchez-Munoz, C., Sanz, D., & Zabala, M. (2007). Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 41(11), 793-799.

Scerpella, T. A., Davenport, M., Morganti, C. M., Kanaley, J. A., & Johnson, L. M. (2003). Dose related association of impact activity and bone mineral density in pre-pubertal girls. Calcified Tissue International, 72(1), 24-31.

Schnabel G, Haare H-D, Krug J. (2008), Theory of Training – Science in Training. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Verlag.

Soric, M., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., & Pedisic, Z. (2008). Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 18(3), 343-354.

Vignerová, J., Lhotská, L., Bláha, P., & Roth, Z. (1996). Porovnání růstu dětské populace s růstovými referenčními údaji WHO (2-18 let). Česko-Slovenská Pediatrie, 51(1), 24-30.

Vuillerme, N., Danion, F., Marin, L., Boyadjian, A., Prieur, J. M., Weise, I., & Nougier, V. (2001). The effect of expertise in gymnastics on postural control. Neuroscience Letters, 303(2), 83-86.

Weimann, E. (2002). Gender-related differences in elite gymnasts: the female athlete triad. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(5), 2146-2152.

Zanker, C. L., Osborne, C., Cooke, C. B., Oldroyd, B., & Truscott, J. G. (2004). Bone density, body composition and menstrual history of sedentary female former gymnasts, aged 20–32 years. Osteoporosis International, 15(2), 145-154.

Downloads

Published

2019-02-01

Issue

Section

Articles

How to Cite

Kutac, P., Jurkova, S., & Farana, R. (2019). MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG FEMALE ARTISTIC GYMNASTS FROM THE CZECH REPUBLIC. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 11(1), 57-66. https://doi.org/10.52165/sgj.11.1.57-66

Similar Articles

1-10 of 178

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.