• Yaiza Taboada-Iglesias
  • Diego Alonso-Fernández
  • Xoana Reguera-López-de-la-Osa
  • Águeda Gutiérrez-Sánchez



gymnastics, anthropometry, Body composition, injuries, acrobatic gymnastics


The risk of injury is associated with elite sport. There is evidence that body composition may affect injury risk. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of injuries, and to determine the relationship of body composition with the incidence, typology and severity of injuries in female acrobatic gymnasts.

The sample included 92 female acrobatic gymnasts aged between 9 and 20 years (13.66 ± 2.66 years), 33 tops (11.06 and 1.41 age) and 59 bases (15.11 and 2.00 age). Body measurements (fat percentage, muscle percentage and the sum of 6 skinfolds), and body mass index (BMI) and their categorization into underweight, normal weight and overweight, were measured. Data about injuries were collected through a self-completed questionnaire at the end of the season, where it was recorded whether they had suffered injuries, the type of injury (joint, ligament, tendon or bone) and its severity (minor, moderate or severe). A descriptive, comparative and relational analysis of the studied variables and between groups was carried out.

The results obtained in this study indicate a higher percentage of uninjured gymnasts, but also a high percentage of injured gymnasts, with ligament injuries being the most frequent. As for the relationship with body composition and BMI, no significant relationships were observed in the incidence, typology or severity of injuries suffered by these athletes. It only seems to affect tendon injuries in the bases, with the injured gymnasts having a higher BMI, fat percentage and the sum of six skinfolds.


Download data is not yet available.


Abalo Núñez, R., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, A., & Vernetta, M. (2013a). Las Lesiones en la Gimnasia Aeróbica. Artículo de Revisión [Aerobic gymnastics injuries. Review article] Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 49, 183-198. Http://

Abalo Nuñez, R., Vernetta, M., & Gutiérrez-Sánchez, A. (2013b). Analysis of the lesional incidence in the spanish gymnastics elite aerobic competition. Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte, 19(5), 375-8.

Alvero, J.R., Cabañas, D., Herrero, A., Martínez, L., Moreno, C., Porta, J Sillero, M., & Sirvent, J. E. (2010). Protocolo de valoración de la composición corporal para el reconocimiento médico-deportivo [Body composition assessment protocol for sports medical examination]. Consensus document of the Spanish group of kinanthropometry (GREC) of the Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine. (FEMEDE). Version 2010. Archivos de Medicina del Deporte, 27(139), 330-344.

Anwajler, J., Wojna, D., Stepak, A., & Skolimowski, T. (2005). The influence of sports acrobatic training on the range of mobility of the spine and the upper and lower extremities. Polish Journal of Physiotherapy 5(1), 57-64.

Backe, S., Ericson, L., Janson, S., & Timpka, T. (2009). Rock climbing injury rates and associated risk factors in a general climbing population. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports, 19(6), 850–856.

Bacciotti, S., Baxter-Jones, A., Gaya, A., & Maia, J. (2017). The Physique of Elite Female Artistic Gymnasts: A Systematic Review. Journal of Human Kinetics, 58(1) 247-259.

Brumitt, J., Mattocks, A., Engilis, A., Sikkema, J., & Loew, J. (2020). Off-Season Training Habits and BMI, Not Preseason Jump Measures, Are Associated with Time-Loss Injury in Female Collegiate Soccer Players. Sports, 8(3), 36. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Cai, W., Gao, Y., Yang, W., Cheng, F., Tang, D., & Li, L. (2018). Physical Activity-Related Injury and Its Associated Factors among Middle School Students in Southern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(6), 1244. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Caine, D. J., & Nassar, L. (2005). Gymnastics injuries. Medicine and sport science, 48, 18–58.

Campbell, R. A., Bradshaw, E. J., Ball, N. B., Pease, D. L., & Spratford, W. (2019). Injury epidemiology and risk factors in competitive artistic gymnasts: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine, 53(17), 1056–1069.

Cole, T. J., Flegal, K. M., Nicholls, D. & Jackson, A. A. (2007). Body mass index cut offs to define thinness in children and adolescents: international survey. BMJ, 335(7612),194.

De Rose, E., & Guimaraes, A. C. A. (1980). Model for optimization of Somatotype in Young athletes. En: Ostyn M., Beunen, G. & Simons, J. Kinanthropometry II. Baltimore University Park Press.

Jakše, B., Jakše, B., Čuk, I., & Šajber, D. (2021). Body Composition, Training Volume/Pattern and Injury Status of Slovenian Adolescent Female High-Performance Gymnasts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(4), 2019. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Kolt, G. S., & Kirkby, R. J. (1999). Epidemiology of injury in elite and subelite female gymnasts: a comparison of retrospective and prospective findings. British journal of sports medicine, 33(5), 312–318.

Marfell-Jones, M., Olds, T., Stewart, A., & Carter, L. (2006). International standards for anthropometric assessment. ISAK: Potchefstroom, South Africa.

Matiegka, J. (1921). The testing of physical efficiency. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 4, 223-230.

Navarro. E. (2003) La lesiones deportivas asociadas al Aeróbic de Competición. [Sports injuries associated with competitive aerobics]. Doctoral thesis: University of Murcia, Spain.

Purnell, M., Shirley, D., Nicholson, L., & Adams, R. (2010). Acrobatic gymnastics injury: occurrence, site and training risk factors. Physical therapy in sport: official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine, 11(2), 40–46.

Slaughter, M., Lohamn, T., Boileau, R., Horswill, C., Stillman, R., Van Loan, M. & Bemben D. A. (1988). Skinfold equation for estimation of body fatness in children and youth. Human Biology, 60, 709-723.

Sugimoto, D., Howell, D. R., Tocci, N. X., & Meehan, W. P., 3rd (2018). Risk factors associated with self-reported injury history in female youth soccer players. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 46(3), 312–318.

Taboada-Iglesias, Y. & Gutiérrez-Sánchez, A. (2015). Análisis de la incidencia lesional diferenciada en roles de actuación en deportistas de Gimnasia Acrobática [Analysis of differentiated injury incidence in performance roles in Acrobatic Gymnastics athletes]. In Health. Clinical and psychosocial aspects. I Congreso Iberoamericano De Salud y Bienestar. (pp 105-113). A Coruña, Spain: GEU Editorial.

Taboada-Iglesias, Y., Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Á., & Vernetta Santana, M. (2016). Anthropometric profile of elite acrobatic gymnasts and prediction of role performance. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 56(4), 433-442.

Thomas, R. E., & Thomas, B. C. (2019). A systematic review of injuries in gymnastics. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 47(1), 96–121.

Twitchett, E., Angioi, M., Metsios, G. S., Koutedakis, Y., & Wyon, M. (2008). Body Composition and Ballet Injuries: A Preliminary Study. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 23(3), 93-98.

Ursej, E., Sekulic, D., Prus, D., Gabrilo, G., & Zaletel, P. (2019). Investigating the Prevalence and Predictors of Injury Occurrence in Competitive Hip Hop Dancers: Prospective Analysis. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(17), 3214.

Vernetta-Santana, M., Ariza-Vargas, L., Martínez-Patiño, M. J., & López-Bedoya, J. (2022). Injury profile in elite acrobatic gymnasts compared by gender. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 17(4), 719–731.

Vernetta, M., Montosa, I., & López-Bedoya, J. (2016). Análisis de las lesiones deportivas en jóvenes practicantes de gimnasia rítmica de competición en categoría infantil [Analysis of sports injuries in young athletes of competitive rhythmic gymnastics in the infantile category]. Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte, 9(3), 105-109.

Vernetta, M., Montosa, I., & López-Bedoya, J. (2018). Lesiones en jóvenes gimnastas femeninas de acrobática de la élite nacional [Injuries in young acrobatic female gymnasts of the national elite]. Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte, 7(3), 71-84.

WHO (2007). Growth reference 5-19 years. BMI-for-age (5-19 years).

Vernetta, M., López Bedoya, J., & Jiménez, J. (2007). La utilización del registro de los tiempos de intervención de las acciones motrices en la gimnasia acrobática [The use of the recording of the times of of motor actions in acrobatic gymnastics in acrobatic gymnastics]. Lecturas: EF y Deportes. Revista Digital, 12(110).







How to Cite

Taboada-Iglesias, Y., Alonso-Fernández, D., Reguera-López-de-la-Osa, X., & Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Águeda. (2023). BODY COMPOSITION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SPORTS INJURIES IN YOUNG FEMALE ACROBATIC GYMNASTS. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 15(3), 323-338.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 179

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)