Optimization of Knitted Fabrics for better Thermo-Physiological Comfort by using Taguchi-based Principal Component Analysis


  • Kashaf Kazmi National Textile University, School of Arts and Design, Department of Design, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Zafar Javed National Textile University, School of Arts and Design, Department of Design, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Muhammad Salman National Textile University, School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Fatima Iftikhar National Textile University, School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Naseer Ahmed National Textile University, School of Science, Department of Applied Science, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Jawad Naeem National Textile University, School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Abdul Jabbar National Textile University, School of Engineering and Technology, Department of Textile Engineering, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author
  • Mehmet Karahan Uludag University Vocational School of Technical Sciences, Görükle 16059 Nilüfer, Bursa, Turkey Author https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3915-5598
  • M. Salman Naeem National Textile University, School of Arts and Design, Department of Design, Sheikhupura Road, Faisalabad - 37610, Pakistan Author




fibre blends, fabric construction, heat and transmission properties of fabric, statistical analysis


The water, air permeability and thermal resistance of fabrics are important attributes that have a significant impact on the thermal comfort properties of sportswear fabrics in different environmental conditions. In this work, terry and fleece fabrics were developed by varying the fibre content and mass per unit area of fabrics. Moreover, the thermo-physical properties of the developed fabrics, including air permeability, water vapor permeability and thermal resistance, were analysed before and after washing. The multi-response optimization of the thermal comfort properties of knitted fabrics was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and the Taguchi signal-to-noise ratio (PCA-S/N ratio) to achieve optimal properties. It was determined that the selected parameters (fabric type, finishing, fibre content and fabric mass per unit area) had a significant effect on the thermal comfort properties of knitted fabrics. The PCA analysis showed that 100% cotton terry fabric before washing with an aerial weight of 220 g/m2 had higher air and water vapor permeability value, but a lower thermal resistance value.


Download data is not yet available.


OĞLAKCIOĞLU, Nida, MARMARALI, Arzu. Thermal comfort properties of some knitted structures. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2007, 15(5–6), 64–65.

DAS, Apurba, ALAGIRUSAMY, R. Science in Clothing Comfort. New Delhi : Woodhead Publishing, 2010, doi: 10.1016/B978-1-84569-789-1.50009-2.

CHOUDHURY, A.K. Roy, MAJUMDAR, P.K., DATTA, C. Factors affecting comfort: human physiology and the role of clothing. In Improving Comfort in Clothing. Edited by Guowen Song. Elsevier, 2011, 3–60, doi: 10.1533/9780857090645.1.3.

BHATTACHARYA, Someshwar S., AJMERI, Jitendra R. Air permeability of knitted fabrics made from regenerated cellulosic fibres. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development, 2014, 10(7), 16–22.

KOTB, N.A., SALMAN, A.A., GHAZY, H.M., EL-ANAIN, Abu. Quality of summer knitted fabrics produced from microfiber/cotton yarns. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2011, 1(12), 3416–3423.

SAVILLE, B.P. Physical Testing of Textiles. Cambridge : Woodhead Publishing, 1999.

ONOFREI, Elena. The properties of knitted fabrics for bio-functional textiles. Buletinul Institutului Politehnic Din IASI, 2010, l LVI(LX), Fasc. 2, 75–84.

FATEN, Fayala, HAMZA, Alibi, ABDELMAJID, Jemni, XIANI, Jeng. Study the effect of operating parameters and intrinsic features of yarn and fabric on thermal conductivity of stretch knitted fabrics using artificial intelligence system. Fibers and Polymers, 15(14), 855–86, doi: 10.1007/s12221-014-0855-y.

OGULTA, R. Tugrul, MEZARCIOZ, Serin M. Optimization of air permeability of knitted fabrics with the Taguchi approach. The Journal of the Textile Institute, 2011, 102(5), 395–404, doi: 10.1080/00405000.2010.482347.

HALEEM, Noman, MALIK, Zulifqar Ali, MALIK, Mumtaz Hussan, HUSSAIN, Tanveer, GILANI, Qummer, REHMAN, Ayisha. Predicting the air permeability of polyester/cotton blended woven fabrics. Fibers and Polymers, 2013,14(7), 1172–1178, doi: 10.1007/s12221-013-1172-6.

SAHA, Pran Krisna, HAQUE, Muhammad Anamul, ISLAM, Tarikul, PAUL, Debasree, SAHA, Joy Krishna. A study on thermal comfort feeling properties of 60%/40% and 80%/20% cotton/polyester and 100% cotton fleece. Journal of Textile Science & Fashion Technology (JTSFT), 2019, 4(3), 1–5, doi: 10.33552/JTSFT.2019.04.000586.

IFTIKHAR, F., HUSSAIN, T., ALI, Z., NAZIR, A., ADOLPHE, D.C., SCHACHER, L. Investigation of thermo-physiological comfort and mechanical properties of fine cotton fabrics for ladies’ summer apparel. Journal of Natural Fibers, 2020, 17(11), 1619–1629, doi: 10.1080/15440478.2019.1588185.

BIVAINYTĖ, Asta, MIKUČIONIENĖ, Daiva. Investigation on the air and water vapour permeability of double-layered weft knitted fabrics. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2011, 19(3), 69–73.

BIVAINYTĖ Asta, MIKUČIONIENĖ Daiva, KERPAUSKAS Paulius. Investigation on thermal properties of double-layered weft knitted fabrics. Materials Science, 2012, 18(2), 167–171, doi: 10.5755/j01.ms.18.2.1921.

HAVENITH, George. Interaction of clothing and thermoregulation. Exogenous Dermatology, 2002, 1(5), 221–230, doi: 10.1159/000068802.

AFZAL, Ali, HUSSAIN, Tanveer, MOHSIN, M., RASHEED, Abher, AHMAD, Sheraz. Statistical models for predicting the thermal resistance of polyester/cotton blended interlock knitted fabrics. International Journal of Thermal Sciences. 2014, 85, 40–46, doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2014.06.016.

JASMSHAID, Hafsa, RAJPUT, Abdul Waqar, ZAHID, Bilal, ASFAND, Norina., BASRA, Skindar Abbas, ALI, Amer. Comparison of functional properties of woven and knitted denim fabrics. Indsutria Textila, 2020, 71(1), 1–7, doi: 10.35530/IT.071.01.1604.

AKBAR, Abdul R., SU, Siwei, KHALID, Junaid, CAI, Yingjie., LIN, Lina. Investigation of comfort properties of knitted denim. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, 275, 1–6, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/275/1/012029.

DAS, Biswa Ranjan, YADAV, D.K., SINGH, M.K., GOSWAMI, T.H., PRASAD, Eswara N. Development of advanced knitted structures for base layer clothing for glacier regions. Fibers and Polymers, 2020, 27, 1618–1626, doi: 10.1007/s12221-020-1088-x .

DAS, Biswa Ranjanm, BHATTACHARJEE, Debarati, KUMAR, Kamal, SRIVASTAVA, Anurag. Thermo-physiological comfort characteristics of fine-denier polypropylene fabrics. Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, 2013, 17(1), 133–140, doi: 10.1108/RJTA-17-01-2013-B014.

PARVEZ, M.S., RAHMAN, M.I., ISLAM, T., AHMED, S.R. Quality optimization by evaluating physico-mechanical properties of industrial acid wash, cool dyeing and dip dyeing processes on knitted garment. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 2019, 9(1), 236–242, doi: 10.35940/ijeat.A1130.109119.

UMAIR, Muhammad, SHAKER, Khubaib, AHMAD, Naseer, HUSSAIN, Muzzamil, JABBAR, Madeha, NAWAB, Yasir. Simultaneous optimization of woven fabric properties using principal component analysis. Journal of Natural Fibers, 2017, 14(6), 846–857, doi: 10.1080/15440478.2017.1279994.

ABD EL-HADY, R.A.M., ABD EL-BAKY, R.A.A. The influence of pile weft knitted structures on the functional properties of winter outerwear fabrics. Journal of American Science, 2015, 11(9), 101–108.

BADR, A.A., EL-NAHRAWY, A. Moisture properties of raised 3-thread fleece fabric knitted with different face and fleecy yarns. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 2016, 55(3), 2881–2892, doi: 10.1016/j.aej.2016.06.021.

MAVRUZ, Serin, OGULATA, Tugru R. Investigation of air permeability of single jersey fabrics with different relaxation states. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2011, 102(1), 57–64, doi: 10.1080/00405000903474907.

VASILE, Simona, DE RAEVE, Alexandra, MALENGIER, Benny, COOLS, Joris. Effect of biaxial stretch and domestic washing on air permeability of elastic knitted fabrics for sportswear. Fibers and Polymers, 2019, 20(4), 868–875, doi: 10.1007/s12221-019-8871-6.

AFZAL, Ali, HUSSAIN, Tanveer, MALIK, Mumtaz Hassan, RASHEED, Abher, AHMAD, Sheraz, BASIT, Abdul, NAZIR, Ahsan. Investigation and modeling of air permeability of cotton/polyester blended double layer interlock knitted fabrics. Fibers and Polymers, 2014, 15(7), 1539–1547, doi: 10.1007/s12221-014-1539-3.

WILBIK-HALGAS, Božena, DANYCH, Remigiusz, WIECEK, Bogdan, KOWALSKI, Krzysztof. Air and water vapour permeability in double-layered knitted fabrics with different raw materials. Fibers and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2006, 14(3), 77–80.

ÇIL, M., NERGIS, U., CANDAN, C. An experimental study of some comfort-related properties of cotton-acrylic knitted fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2009, 79(10), 917–923, doi: 10.1177/0040517508099919.

IBRAHIM, N.A., KHALIFA, T.F., EL-HOSSAMY, M., TAWFIK, T. Effect of knit structure and finishing treatments on functional and comfort properties of cotton knitted fabrics. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 2010, 40(1), 49–64, doi: 10.1177/1528083709357975.

MIKUČIONIENĖ, Davia, ČIUKAS, Ricardas, MICKEVIČIENĖ Agne. The influence of knitting structure on mechanical properties of weft knitted fabrics. Materials Science (Medžiagotyra), 2010, 16(3), 221–225.

NAZIR, Ahsan, HUSSAIN, Tanveer, AHMAD, Faheem, FAHEEM, Sajid. Effect of knitting parameters on moisture management and air permeability of interlock fabrics. AUTEX Research Journal, 2014, 14(1), 39–46, doi: 10.2478/v10304-012-0045-1.

STANKOVIC, Snezana B., POPOVIC, Dusan, POPARIC, Goran B., BIZJAK, Mateja. Ultraviolet protection factor of gray-state plain cotton knitted fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2009, 79(11), 1034–1042, doi: 10.1177/0040517508102016.

HUSSAIN, U., SARWAR, A., SHAFQAT, Ali Raza, MUZAFFAR. M., IQBAL. M., ZAHRA. N., AHMAD, Faheem, HUSSAIN, Tanveer. Effect of spinning variables on packing density of cotton yarn. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 2014, 39(4), 434–436.

OGLAKCIOGLU, Nida, CELIK, Pinar, UTE, Tuba Bedez, MARMARALI, Azru, KADOGLU, Huseyin. Thermal comfort properties of angora rabbit/cotton fiber blended knitted fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2009, 79(10), 888–894, doi: 10.1177/0040517508099396.

MITRA, Ashis, MAJUMDAR, Abhijit, MAJUMDAR, Prabal Kumar, BANNERJEE, Debamalya. Predicting thermal resistance of cotton fabrics by artificial neural network model. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2013, 50, 172–177, doi: 10.1016/j.expthermflusci.2013.06.006.

HOLCOMBE, B.V., HOSCHKE, B.N. Dry heat transfer characteristics of underwear fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 1983, 53(6), 368–374, doi: 10.1177/004051758305300608.

MALLIKARJUNAN, Kandhavadivu, RAMACHANDRAN, T., MANOHARI, Geetha. Comfort and thermo physiological characteristics of multilayered fabrics for medical textiles. Journal of Textile & Apparel Technology & Management (JTATM), 2011, 7(1), 1–15.

PRAKASH, C., RAMAKRISHNAN, G., KOUSHIK, C.V. A study of the thermal properties of bamboo knitted fabrics. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2013, 111, 101–105, doi: 10.1007/s10973-011-2166-5.

MISHRA, Rajesh, JAMSHAID, Hafsa, YOSFANI, Sheraz Hussain Siddique, HUSSAIN, Uzair, NADEEM, Muhammad, PETRU, Michal, TICHY, Martin, MULLER, Miroslav. Thermo physiological comfort of single jersey knitted fabric derivatives. Fashion and Textiles, 2021, 8(40), 1–22, doi: 10.1186/s40691-021-00266-5.






Scientific article

How to Cite

Kazmi, K., Javed, Z., Salman, M., Iftikhar, F., Ahmed, N., Naeem, J., Jabbar, A., Karahan, M., & Naeem, M. S. (2023). Optimization of Knitted Fabrics for better Thermo-Physiological Comfort by using Taguchi-based Principal Component Analysis. Tekstilec, 66(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.14502/tekstilec.65.2022024

Similar Articles

1-10 of 67

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)