Adhesion and Stab-resistant Properties of FDM-printed Polymer/Textile Composites


  • Siver Cakar Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences and Arts, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany
  • Andrea Ehrmann Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences and Arts, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany



3D printing, fused deposition modeling (FDM), flexible polymer, stab-resistance, VPAM-KDIW


Stab-resistant clothing has been used for centuries by soldiers. Today, it is also used by policemen and other people in dangerous jobs or situations. While chain-mail or metal inserts in protective vests are heavy and uncomfortable, lightweight and bendable alternatives are currently the subject of investigation. Special textile fabrics offer a certain level of stab-resistance that can be improved by different coatings. In this study, we investigated composites of different flexible 3D printing materials, used for the fused deposition modelling (FDM) technique, on woven fabrics. Besides the adhesion between both parts of these composites, the quasi-static stab-resistant properties were investigated and compared with those of pure textile fabrics and 3D prints, respectively.


LATOURRETTE, Tom. The life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2010, 7(10), 557–562, doi: 10.1080/15459624.2010.489798.

RICCIARDI, Richard, DEUSTER, Patricia A., TALBOT, Laura A. Metabolic demands of body armor on physical performance in simulated conditions. Military Medicine, 2008, 173(9), 817–824, doi: 10.7205/MILMED.173.9.817.

MATUSIAK, M. Thermal comfort index as a method of assessing the thermal comfort of textile materials. Fibres & Textiles in Eastern Europe, 2010, 18(2), 45–50.

NAYAK, Rajkishore, KANESALINGAM, Sinnappoo, WANG, Lijing, PADHYE, Rajiv. Stab resistance and thermophysiological comfort properties of boron carbide coated aramid and ballistic nylon fabrics. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2019, 110(8), 1159–1168, doi: 10.1080/00405000.2018.1548800.

MAYO, J.B., Jr., WETZEL, E.D. Cut resistance and failure of high-performance single fibers. Textile Research Journal, 2014, 84(2), 1233–1246, doi: 10.1177/0040517513517966.

LI, Ting-Ting, WANG, Zhike, ZHANG, Xiayun, WU, Liwei, LOU, Ching-Wen, LIN, Jia-Horng. Dynamic cushion, quasi-static stab resistance, and acoustic absorption analyses of flexible multifunctional inter-/intra-bonded sandwich-structured composites. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2021, 112(1), 47–55, doi: 10.1080/00405000.2020.1747676.

ZHANG, Xiayun, LI, Ting-Ting, SUN, Fei, PENG, Hao-Kai, WANG, Zhike, LIN, Jia-Horng, LOU, Ching-Wen. Stab/puncture resistance performance of needle punched nonwoven fabrics: effects of filament reinforcement and thermal bonding. Fibers and Polymers, 2022, 23, 2330–2339, doi: 10.1007/s12221-022-3968-8.

TIAN, Luxin, SHI, Juanjuan, CHEN, Hongxia, HUANG, Xiaomei, CAO, Haijian. Cut-resistant performance of Kevlar and UHMWPE covered yarn fabrics with different structures. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2022, 113(7), 1457–1463, doi: 10.1080/00405000.2021.1933327.

GADOW, Rainer, VON NIESSEN, Konstantin. Ceramic coatings on fiber woven fabrics. In 26th Annual Conference on Composites, Advanced Ceramics, Materials, and Structures: A: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings. Edited by Hua-Tay Lin, Mrityunjay Singh. Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, 277–285.

GADOW, Rainer., VON NIESSEN, Konstantin. lightweight ballistic with additional stab protection made of thermally sprayed ceramic and cermet coatings on aramide fabrics. International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology, 2006, 3(4), 284–292, doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7402.2006.02088.x.

LEE, Young S., WETZEL, E.D., WAGNER, N.J. The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid. Journal of Materials Science, 2003, 38, 2825–2833, doi: 10.1023/A:1024424200221.

DECKER, M.J., HALBACH, C.J., NAM, C.H., WAGNER, N.J., WETZEL, E.D. Stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabrics. Composites Science and Technology, 2007, 67(3–4), 565–578, doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2006.08.007.

MAYO, Jessie B., Jr., WETZEL, Eric D., HOSUR, Mahesh V., JEELANI, Shaik. Stab and puncture characterization of thermoplastic-impregnated aramid fabrics. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 2009, 36(9), 1095–1105, doi: 10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2009.03.006.

STOJANOVIC, Dusica B., ZRILIC, Milorad, JANCIC-HEINEMANN, Radmila, ZIVKOVIC, Irena, KOJOVIC, Aleksandar, USKOKOVIC, Peter S., ALEKSIC, Radoslav. Mechanical and antistabbing properties of modified thermoplastic polymers impregnated multiaxial p-aramid fabrics. Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 2013, 24(8), 772–776, doi: 10.1002/pat.3141.

CHEON, Jinsil, LEE, Minwook, KIM, Minkook. Study on the stab resistance mechanism and performance of the carbon, glass and aramid fiber reinforced polymer and hybrid composites. Composite Structures, 2020, 234, 111690, doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2019.111690.

CICEK, Umur Ibrahim, SOUTHEE, Darren John, JOHNSON, Andrew Allan. Assessing the stab resistive performance of material extruded body armour specimens. International Journal of Protective Structures, 2022, 14(3), 335–356, doi: 10.1177/20414196221112148.

MAIDIN, S., CHONG, S.Y., HEING, T.K., ABDULLAH, Z., ALKAHARI, R. Stab resistant analysis of body armour design features manufactured via fused deposition modelling process. In Textile Manufacturing Processes. Edited by F. Uddin. London : IntechOpen, 2019, 69–83.

JIANG, J.H., YUAN, M.Q., JI, T.C. Investigations on laser sintered textiles for stab-resistant application. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium - An Additive Manufacturing Conference, Austin, TX, USA, 10–12 August 2015, 2155–2164.

GRIMMELSMANN, Nils, KREUZIGER, Mirja, KORGER, Michael, MEISSNER, Hubert, EHRMANN, Andrea. Adhesion of 3D printed material on textile substrates. Rapid Prototyping Journal, 2018, 24(1), 166–170, doi: 10.1108/RPJ-05-2016-0086.

SANATGAR, Razieh Hashemi, CAMPAGNE, Christine, NIERSTRASZ, Vincent. Investigation of the adhesion properties of direct 3D printing of polymers and nanocomposites on textiles: effect of FDM printing process parameters. Applied Surface Science, 2017, 403, 551–563, doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2017.01.112.

ERDEM, Göksal, GROTHE, Timo, EHRMANN, Andrea. Adhesion of new thermoplastic materials printed on textile fabrics. Tekstilec, 2023, 66(1), 57–63, doi: 10.14502/tekstilec.66.2023012.

KDIW 2004 [online]. VPAM [accessed 23 August 2023]. Available on World Wide Web: <>.

Home Office Body Armor Standard 2017 (knife and spike) [online]. Protection Group Denmark [accessed 23 August 2023]. Available on World Wide Web: <>.

NIJ Standard–0115.00. Stab resistance of personal body armor. Washington : National Institute of Justice, 2000.

NIJ Standard–0115.01: draft. Stab resistance of personal body armor. Gaithersburg : National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2020.

ASTMF1342/F1342M-05(2022). Standard test method for protective clothing material resistance to puncture. West Conshohocken : ASTM International, 2022,

PANNEKE, Niklas, EHRMANN, Andrea. Stab-resistant polymers – recent developments in materials and structures. Polymers, 2023, 15(4), 1–22, doi: 10.3390/polym15040983.

KOZIOR, Tomasz., DÖPKE, Christoph, GRIMMELSMANN, Nils, JUHÁSZ JUNGER, Irén, EHRMANN, Andrea. Influence of fabric pretreatment on adhesion of 3D printed material on textile substrates. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2018, 10(8), 1–8, doi: 10.1177/1687814018792316.

KORGER, M., GLOGOWSKY, A., SANDULOFF, S., STEINEM, C., HUYSMAN, S., HORN, B., ERNST, M., RABE, M. Testing thermoplastic elastomers selected as flexible three-dimensional printing materials for functional garment and technical textile applications. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, 2020, 15, 1–10, doi: 10.1177/1558925020924599.




How to Cite

Cakar, S., & Ehrmann, A. (2023). Adhesion and Stab-resistant Properties of FDM-printed Polymer/Textile Composites. Tekstilec, 66, 1–7.



Scientific article


Most read articles by the same author(s)