Research on Sustainable Textile Production: Waterless Dyeing of PET and Recycled PET Fabrics


  • Semiha Eren Bursa Uludağ University Textile Engineering Department Bursa/Türkiye Author
  • Aliye Akarsu Özenç Bursa Uludağ University Textile Engineering Department Bursa/Türkiye Author
  • Nejla Çeven Bursa Uludağ University Textile Engineering Department Bursa/Türkiye; Vanelli Textile Industry inc. Bursa/ Türkiye Author



supercritical carbon dioxide medium, polyester fabric, recycled polyester fabric, dyeing, sustainable


Due to water limitations and the growing global demand for raw materials, manufacturers and consumers are seeking more environmentally friendly alternatives. Polyester, a non-biodegradable fibre derived from petroleum, can be replaced with recycled polyester (r-PET), a sustainable alternative that reduces environmental impacts through the reuse of materials. The textile finishing industry, known for its high water and energy consumption, is calling for the development of low-water-consumption technologies. One innovative approach involves waterless dyeing procedures using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium that is particularly suitable for dyeing synthetic fibres. To assess its effectiveness, a study compared traditional water dyeing with scCO2 medium dyeing on woven fabrics made from both polyester (PET) and recycled polyester (r-PET) fibres with varying weights. After conducting tests on the dyed fabrics, the data revealed that r-PET fabrics dyed using a supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium appeared darker than fabrics dyed using traditional water dyeing techniques. Moreover, r-PET fabrics demonstrated better colour fastness. Notably, the K/Ssum values (measurement of colour intensity) of r-PET fabrics were at least as good as those of PET-based fabrics in all cases of dyeing, while the fastness values were similar for both PET and r-PET fabrics.


Download data is not yet available.


ALKAYA, E., DEMİRER, G.N. Sustainable textile production: a case study from a woven fabric manufacturing mill in Turkey. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2014, 65, 595–603, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.07.008.

HUSSAIN, T., WAHAB, A. A critical review of the current water conservation practices in textile wet processing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2018, 198, 806–819, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.051.

BAI, T., KOBAYASHI, K., TAMURA, K., JUN, Y., ZHENG, L. Supercritical CO2 dyeing for nylon, acrylic, polyester, and casein buttons and their optimum dyeing conditions by design of experiments. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 2019, 33, 253–261, doi: 10.1016/j.jcou.2019.05.013.

SCHMIDT, A., BACH, E., SCHOLLMEYER, E. The dyeing of natural fibres with reactive disperse dyes in supercritical carbon dioxide. Dyes and Pigments, 2003, 56(1), 27–35, doi: 10.1016/S0143-7208(02)00108-0.

HOU, A., XIE, K., DAI, J. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing conditions on the chemical and morphological changes of poly (ethylene terephthalate) fibers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2004, 92(3), 2008–2012, doi: 10.1002/app.20066.

Polyester fibers. Chemical economics handbook [online]. S&P Global [accessed 21. 12. 2023]. Available on World Wide Web: <>.

QIAN, W., JI, X., XU, P.,WANG, L. Carbon footprint and water footprint assessment of virgin and recycled polyester textiles. Textile Research Journal, 2021, 91(21–22), 2468–2475, doi: 10.1177/00405175211006213.

TELLI, A. Pet şişe geri dönüşüm pes ile klasik pes liflerinden üretilen iplik ve kumaş özelliklerinin karşılaştırılması üzerine bir çalışma. Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ege Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Tekstil Mühendisliği Ana Bilim Dalı, İzmir, 2011,

LI, M., LU, J., LI, X., GE, M., LE, Y. Removal of disperse dye from alcoholysis products of waste PET fabrics by nitric acid-modified activated carbon as an adsorbent: kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Textile Research Journal, 2020, 90(17–18), 2058–2069, doi: 10.1177/0040517520909510.

GUPTA, R., SHUKLA, V. K., AGARWAL, P. Sustainable transformation in modest fashion through “RPET technology” and “Dry-Dye” process, using recycled PET plastic. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, 2019, 8(3), 5415–5421.

DE GIORGI, M.R., CADONI, E., MARICCA, D., PIRAS, A. Dyeing polyester fibres with disperse dyes in supercritical CO2. Dyes and Pigments, 2000, 45(1), 75–79, doi: 10.1016/S0143-7208(00)00011-5.

ZHENG, H., ZHONG, Y., MAO, Z., ZHENG, L. CO2 utilization for the waterless dyeing: characterization and properties of Disperse Red 167 in supercritical fluid. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 2018, 24, 266–273, doi: 10.1016/j.jcou.2018.01.014.

HUANG, T., KONG, X., CUI, H., ZHANG, T., LI, W., YU, P., LIN, J. Waterless dyeing of zipper tape using pilot-scale horizontal supercritical carbon dioxide equipment and its green and efficient production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2019, 233, 1097–1105, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.189.

EREN, S., ÖZCAN, H., YIGIT, İ., EREN, H. A. Polyesterin disperse blue 79 ile klasik ve susuz boyanmasının karşılaştırılması. Uludağ Üniversitesi Mühendislik Fakültesi Dergisi, 2019, 24(2), 661-670, doi: 10.17482/uumfd.565247.

YIGIT, İ., EREN, S., OZCAN, H., AVINC, O., EREN, H. A. An investigation of process parameters on colour during the dyeing of polyester in supercritical carbon dioxide media. Coloration Technology, 2021, 137(6), 625–644, doi: 10.1111/cote.12553.

AGRAWAL, B. J. Supercritical carbon-dioxide assisted dyeing of textiles: An environmental benign waterless dyeing process. International Journal of Innovative Research and Creative Technology, 2015, 1(2), 201–205.

EREN, S., OZCAN, I., YIGIT, I., EREN, H. A. Waterless dyeing of polytrimethylene terephthalate and polybutylene terephthalate fabrics via supercritical carbon dioxide. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2023, 201, 1–8, doi: 10.1016/j.supflu.2023.106026.

ELMAATY, T.A., SOFAN, M., KOSBAR, T., ELSISI, H., NEGM, I. Green approach to dye PET and nylon 6 fabrics with novel pyrazole disperse dyes under supercritical carbon dioxide and its aqueous analogue. Fibers and Polymers, 2019, 20(12), 2510–2521, doi: 10.1007/s12221-019-1208-7.

XIONG, X., XU, Y., ZHENG, L., YAN, J., ZHAO, H., ZHANG J., SUN, Y. Polyester fabric’s fluorescent dyeing in supercritical carbon dioxide and its fluorescence imaging. Journal of Fluorescence, 2017, 27(2), 483–489, doi: 10.1007/s10895-016-1975-0.

ABATE, M. T., FERRI, A., GUAN, J., CHEN, G., NIERSTRASZ, V. Colouration and bio-activation of polyester fabric with curcumin in supercritical CO2: part I – investigating colouration properties. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 2019, 152, 1–8, doi: 10.1016/j.supflu.2019.104548.

BUENO, A.M., HOFFMANN, T.G., DE SOUZA, C.K., de CARVALHO, L.F., BERTOLI, S.L., BARCELLOS, I.O., GONCALVES, M.J. Optimal process conditions to recycled polyester dyeing using natural annatto dye. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2022, 370, 1–11, doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.133497.

CHOI, Y. J., KIM, S. H. Characterization of recycled polyethylene terephthalates and polyethylene terephthalate–nylon6 blend knitted fabrics. Textile Research Journal, 2015, 85(4), 337–345, doi: 10.1177/0040517514547207.

CRISTEA, D., VILERAM, G. Improving light fastness of natural dyes on cotton yarn. Dyes and Pigments, 2006, 70(3), 238–245, doi: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2005.03.006.

GILES, C.H. The fading of colouring matters. Journal of Applied Chemistry, 1965, 15(12), 541–550, doi: 10.1002/jctb.5010151201.

HOU, J., XIONG, X., JIAO, C., HUANG, X., FU, D., ZHAO, H., LI, Y. Cleaner production of disperse florescent dyes in supercritical CO2 and their applications in dyeing polyester fabric. Dyes and Pigments, 2022, 202, 1–11, doi: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2022.110250.

DA SILVA, R. L., ALVES, C., NASCİMENTO, J. H., NEVES, J. R. O., TEIXEIR, V. Surface modification of polyester fabric by non-thermal plasma treatment. Journal of Physics: Conference Series , 2012, 406(1), 1–10, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/406/1/012017.

GUAN, L.Y., SHI, M.W., LONG, J.J. One-step method for stain proofing finishing of polyester fabric in supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of CO2 Utilization, 2023, 67, 1–7, doi: 10.1016/j.jcou.2022.102316.

TELLI, A., OZDIL, N., BABAARSLAN, O. Pet şişe atıklarının Tekstil Endüstrisinde Değerlendirilmesi ve Sürdürülebilirliğe Katkısı (Usage of pet bottle wastes in textile industry and contribution to sustaynabylyty). Tekstil ve Mühendis, 2012, 19(86), 49–55, doi: 10.7216/130075992012198607.

DEMIRAL, S., TAYYAR, A.E. Çok Katlı Dokuma Kumaşlar. Uşak Üniversitesi Fen ve Doğa Bilimleri Dergisi, 2018, 2(2), 39–54.

GEDIK, G., AVINC, O., YAVAS, A., KHODDAMI, A. A novel eco-friendly colorant and dyeing method for poly (ethylene terephthalate) substrate. Fibers and Polymers, 2014, 15(2), 261–272, doi: 10.1007/s12221-014-0261-5.

KETEMA, A., WORKU, A. Review on intermolecular forces between dyes used for polyester dyeing and polyester fiber. Journal of Chemistry, 2020, 2020, 1–7, doi: 10.1155/2020/6628404.

HE, S.S., WEI, M.Y., LIU, M.H., XUE, W.L. Characterization of virgin and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 2015, 106(8), 800–806, doi: 10.1080/00405000.2014.944820.






Scientific article


How to Cite

Eren, S., Akarsu Özenç, A., & Çeven, N. (2024). Research on Sustainable Textile Production: Waterless Dyeing of PET and Recycled PET Fabrics. Tekstilec, 67, 19–32.

Similar Articles

1-10 of 48

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.

Most read articles by the same author(s)